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where is ADH hormone produced?
Where is the ADH hormone stored?
Gland in charge of regulating homeostasis
What disease displayes low levels of adrenal corticosteroid hormones, including aldosterone and cortisol?
syndrome caused by an increased production of adrenocorticotropic hormones (ACTH)
Property of a solution that is influenced by size and shape of the molecules
(Boiling Point, Freezing Point, Osmotic Pressure, Vapor Pressure)
what is the average water content of total body weight
what are some functions of water?
- Transport nutrients to cells
- Removes waste products (Via urination)
- Acts as body coolant (Via Sweating)
- Determines Cell Volume
intracellular fluid (ICF) accounts for how much of total body water?
Interior of each cell is separated from the ECF by the?
What disease is characterized by obesity and weak muscles?
In what disease do patients display Hyperkalemia (K>) and hyponatremia (<Na)?
Extracellular Fluid (ECF) can be subdivided into?
Intravascular Fluid (Plasma)
Interstitial Cell Fluid
Active Transport requires the use of the?
ATP (Adrenosine Triphosphate) Pump
*EX. Na-K pump
What kind of fluid movement requires no energy?
passive movement of fluid from a lower concentration to a higher concentration
what system is in charge of vaso-constriction?
Juxtaglomerular (Granular Cells) secrete what hormone?
Angiotensin II stimulates the production of what hormone?
what effect does aldosterone have on blood pressure?
Raises Blood pressure
Aldosterone regulates the?
reabsorbtion of water and sodium within the nepron
what is the vaso-dilator?
Atrial natriuretic peptide
what is the bodies response to increases osmolality?
- 1. ADH secretion
- 2. Sensation of thirst
Diabetes Insipidus is a deficiency of what hormone?
*results in Hypernatremia and dehydration
what are the normal ranges for plasma osmolality?
Osmolality is based on the ___________ of solutes
what is the clinical significance of Osmolality?
- Measures the sodium concentration in the plasma
- (sodium associated with 90% of osmotic activity in plasma)
Why is sodium so important in the plasma?
Associated with 90% of all osmotic activity in the plasma
Name some colligative properties
clinical significance of excess water intake
clinical significance of water deficit
in what type of patients does hypernatremia become a concern?
- patients who are unable to drink or ask for water
- -unconscious patients
- -diminished mental patients
why is plasma not a good specimen for osmolality?
possible anticoagulant contamination
why is serum osmolality measured?
to compare to your urine osmolality
most common principle for osmometers?
- freezing point depression
- standarized using NaCl reference solution
How does vapor pressure osmolality work?
the more solute a solution has, the longer it takes to evaporate, therefore one can determine the concentration of a solution based on the evaporation rate
what is the formula for calculating osmolality?
(1.86*Na) + (Glucose/18) + (BUN/2.8) = Osmolality
what kind of electrolytes migrate towards the cathode?
what electrolytes migrate towards the anodes
what electrolytes are used for body hydration?
what electrolytes are used for enzyme activation?
what electrolytes are used for neuromuscular activity
what are some extracellular ions?
what are some intracellular ions?
what is the primary function of Na?
approximately how much filtered Na is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule?
how does Na help preserve the ECF volume?
Attracts fluid to itself and distributes it throughout the body
what is the recommended daily intake for Na?
2,400 - 4,500 mg Na/day
what is the renal threshold for Na?
110 - 130 mmol/L
what does primary aldosteronism result in?
increased Na in the ECF
increased excretion of K (causing a decrease of K in ECF)
what are the 3 processes for regulation of Na?
- -intake of water (thirst)
- -excretion of water (urination)
- -blood volume status
what is hyponatremia?
deficiency of Na in the blood
-serum/plasma level <135 mmol/L
what disease involves inadequate secretion of aldosterone?
what disorder displays
-poor skin turgur
-decreased jugular venous pressure
-dry mucuous membranes
what is hypernatremia?
increased amount of Na in the blood
> 150 mmol/L
Hypernatremia involves symptoms that mostly affect the?
Central Nervous System (CNS)
treatment for Hypernatremia MUST be done gradually, otherwise it will cause?
cerebral edema and death
symptoms of hyponatremia with serum readings of 125 - 130 mmol/L involve what kind of problems?
where is K predominantly found?
What are some functions of K
-Ex. Contraction of the heart
what would cause an increase in K into the ECF
- anything that lyses your RBC's allowing K out of the membrane
- -severe trauma
-tumor lysis syndrome
-massive blood transfusion
what is hyperkalemia?
increased K in the blood
what is hypokalemia?
defficiency of K in the blood
< 3 mmol/L
What are some functions of Cl
what is the osmolal gap?
the difference between the measured and calculated osmolality
electrolytes differ in concentration throughout the body but the totals balance to achieve a neutral electrical charge, this is known as?
Cushings syndrome is predominantly seen in what gender?
reference range for chloride in the plasma/serum?
98 - 107 mmol/L
reference range for Cl in a 24 hr. urine collection?
110 - 250 mmol/day
What electrolyte passively follows Na?
Na+ Cl- (positive attracts negative)
disoder displaying the OBSTRUCTION of the exocrine glands, including sweat glands, mucous glands and pancreas, recessively inherited in infants and children
most common diagnostic tool for cystic fibrosis?
Sweat Chloride test
What % of P is located in the bone?
What is so crucial about P?
facilitates Oxygen delivery to the tissues
assists in phagocytosis
healthy bones and teeth
What vitamin increases P in the blood?
increases P absorbtion in the intestines and the kidneys
what hormone lowers the concentration of P in the blood?
Hyperphosphatemia is commonly seen in patients with?
the average human body contains _____ g of Mg
what hormone aids in the expulsion of Mg from the body?
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