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a preconceived negative judgment of a group and its individual members.
a belief about the personal attributes of a group of people. stereotypes are sometimes overgeneralized, inaccurate and resistant to new information.
norm vs. stereotype
- norm: how people ought to act
- stereotype: how people do act
unjustified negative behavior toward a group of its members.
when behavior isn't deemed discriminant?
when it's meritorious.
we can have different implicit and explicit attitudes towars the same object. example: prejudice
modern racism/cultural racism
subtle prejudice. appears subtly in our preferences, for what is familiar, similar and comfortable.
a favorable stereotype results in a favorable attitude.
"women have a superior moral sensibility."
"once a man commits, she puts him on a tight leash."
social dominance orientation
a motivation to have one's group dominate other social groups.
believing in the superiority of one's own ethnic and cultural group, and having a corresponding disdain for all other groups.
a personality that is disposed to favor obedience to authority and intolerance of outgroups and those lover in status.
realistic group conflict theory
theory that prejudice arises from competition between groups for scarce resources.
the "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of oru answer to "who am I?" that comes from our group memberships.
"us" a group of people who share a sense of belonging, a feeling of common identity.
"them" a group that people perceive as distinctively different from or apart from their ingroup.
the tendency to favor one's own group.
- need for status
according to theory, people's self-protective emotional and cognitive responses (including adhering more strongly to their cultural worldviews and prejudices) when confronted with reminders of their morality.
denying human attributes to outgroup members.
when is it easiest to rely on stereotypes?
- pressed for time
- emotionally aroused
- too young to appreciate diversity
outgroup homogeneity effect
perception of outgroup members as more similar to one another than our ingroup members. thus they "are alike; we are diverse"
own race bias
cross race effect
other race effect
tendency for people to more accurately recognize faces of their own race.
own age bias
poeple more accurately recognize people similar to their own age
- degree to which one generally believes others will stereotype them, based on their membership in their group
- could buffer the negative effects "I'm hurt, but it's not about me personally"
group serving bais
explaining away outgroup members' positive behaviors; also attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions (while excusing such behavior by one's own group).
linguistic intergroup bias
- "Eric shoved her" (isolated act by ingroup member)
- "Enrique was aggressive" (outgroup members' general disposition)
just world phenomenon
- tendecy of people to believe that the world is just and that poeple therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
- "I am a just person living in a just world, a world where people get what they deserve"
SELF PERPETUATING STEREOTYPES
people within a group serve as exceptions to the rule
SELF PERPETUATING STEREOTYPES
creating a new stereotype to accommodate individuals who didn't fit original stereotypes.
- self-confirming, disruptive apprehension that one will be evaluated based on a specific, negative stereotype.
- IMMEDIATE impact on behavior
- positive elements in the stereotypes can promote success also
long term confirming effects of others believing you can possess certain characteristics.
people often evaluate individuals more positively than the groups they compose
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