Chapter 10

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  1. prejudice
    a preconceived negative judgment of a group and its individual members.
  2. stereotypes
    a belief about the personal attributes of a group of people. stereotypes are sometimes overgeneralized, inaccurate and resistant to new information.
  3. norm vs. stereotype
    • norm: how people ought to act
    • stereotype: how people do act
  4. discrimination
    unjustified negative behavior toward a group of its members.
  5. when behavior isn't deemed discriminant?
    when it's meritorious.
  6. dual attitude
    we can have different implicit and explicit attitudes towars the same object. example: prejudice
  7. modern racism/cultural racism
    subtle prejudice. appears subtly in our preferences, for what is familiar, similar and comfortable.
  8. women-are-wonderful effect
    a favorable stereotype results in a favorable attitude.
  9. benevolent sexism
    "women have a superior moral sensibility."
  10. hostile sexism
    "once a man commits, she puts him on a tight leash."
  11. social dominance orientation
    a motivation to have one's group dominate other social groups.
  12. ethnocentric
    believing in the superiority of one's own ethnic and cultural group, and having a corresponding disdain for all other groups.
  13. authoritarian personality
    a personality that is disposed to favor obedience to authority and intolerance of outgroups and those lover in status.
  14. scapegoat theory
    displaced aggression.
  15. realistic group conflict theory
    theory that prejudice arises from competition between groups for scarce resources.
  16. social identity
    the "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of oru answer to "who am I?" that comes from our group memberships.
  17. ingroup
    "us" a group of people who share a sense of belonging, a feeling of common identity.
  18. outgroup
    "them" a group that people perceive as distinctively different from or apart from their ingroup.
  19. ingroup bias
    the tendency to favor one's own group.
  20. 3 needs
    • need for status
    • self-regard
    • belonging
  21. terror management
    according to theory, people's self-protective emotional and cognitive responses (including adhering more strongly to their cultural worldviews and prejudices) when confronted with reminders of their morality.
  22. infrahumanization
    denying human attributes to outgroup members.
  23. spontaneous categorization
    when is it easiest to rely on stereotypes?
    • pressed for time
    • preoccupied
    • tired
    • emotionally aroused
    • too young to appreciate diversity
  24. outgroup homogeneity effect
    perception of outgroup members as more similar to one another than our ingroup members. thus they "are alike; we are diverse"
  25. own race bias
    cross race effect
    other race effect
    tendency for people to more accurately recognize faces of their own race.
  26. own age bias
    poeple more accurately recognize people similar to their own age
  27. stigma consciousness
    • degree to which one generally believes others will stereotype them, based on their membership in their group
    • could buffer the negative effects "I'm hurt, but it's not about me personally"
  28. group serving bais
    explaining away outgroup members' positive behaviors; also attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions (while excusing such behavior by one's own group).
  29. linguistic intergroup bias
    • "Eric shoved her" (isolated act by ingroup member)
    • "Enrique was aggressive" (outgroup members' general disposition)
  30. just world phenomenon
    • tendecy of people to believe that the world is just and that poeple therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
    • "I am a just person living in a just world, a world where people get what they deserve"
    people within a group serve as exceptions to the rule
    creating a new stereotype to accommodate individuals who didn't fit original stereotypes.
  33. stereotype threat
    • self-confirming, disruptive apprehension that one will be evaluated based on a specific, negative stereotype.
    • IMMEDIATE impact on behavior
    • positive elements in the stereotypes can promote success also
  34. self-fulfilling prophecy
    long term confirming effects of others believing you can possess certain characteristics.
    people often evaluate individuals more positively than the groups they compose
Card Set
Chapter 10
Chapter 10 Social Psychology TU
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