Psych-25 Chapter 8
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What 3 things ahve a strong influence on a child's social and emotional development?
- 1. Parents
- 2. Siblings
- 3. Peers
- Have very different approaches to rearing their children.
- Foster the development of certian behaviors in their chidren using various techniques.
- The techniques a parent uses can be considered on two broad dimensions: Warmth vs. Coldness and Restrictiveness vs. Permissiveness
- Affectionate toward their children (hug, kiss, smile at them)
- Caring, supportive
- Enoy being with their children and communicate this to them.
- Less likely to use physical discipline
- Proud and entertained by their child's stubborn behavior (even though they try to change it).
- May not enjoy being with their children.
- Few feelings of affection (at least don't show it).
- Compain about negative behavior.
- Imposing many rules.
- Watch Children closely.
- Restrictive about a lot of things, not just a few.
- Consistent control and firm rules.
- Impose few if any rules.
- Supervise children less closely (though they still childproof the house, etc.)
- Allow children to do what is natural (be messy, make noise, play with their bodies, etc.)
- May allow aggression and intervene only when another child is in danger.
Warm parents can also be restrictive/permissive, as can a cold parent.
Baumrind's Patters of Parenting
High Restrictiveness/control and warmth and responsiveness
High Restrivetiveness/control, low warmth/responsiveness
Low restrictiveness/control, hight warmth and responsiveness
Low restrictiveness/control and low warmth/responsiveness
Effects of Specific Situations on Parenting Styles
- Is a reciprocal influence, parent and child influence each other equally.
- Children influence how their parents treat them.
- Parenting behaviors and styles often evolve as a consequence of the child's:
- 1. Age: Effective parenting during toddler years will not be effective as an adolescent.
- 2. Temperament
- 3. Behavior: Read manipulation
- Parental affection changes as children age and become more reserved, so warmth is harder to show.
- As children get older control moves from the parent to themselves and children are expected to act maturely.
- Most of us have 2 siblings.
- They make a unique contribution to a child's social emotional and cognitive development.
- Serve functions:
- 1. Physical care
- 2. Emotional support/nurturance
- 3. Offering advice
- 4. Role model
- 5. Making demands
- 6. Imposing restrictions
- 7. Engaging in conflict (enhances social competence, development of self identity, and ability to rear own children).
As siblings get older, their relationships tend to become more equal, and the amount of conflict decreases.
- Exert powerful socialization influences and pressure to conform.
- Physical and cognitive skills develop through peer interactions.
- Peers provide emtional support.
- Peers guide children and give them practice:
- 1. Sharing
- 2. Helping
- 3. Taking turns
- 4. Dealing with conflict
- 5. How to lead/follow
- 6. Coping with aggressive influences
How Do Children's Concepts of Friendship Develop/Change?
- 4-5yrs: I like her toys and playing with our favortie toys together.
- 8-11: Like each other and share activities. We trust each other and will help each other when needed. Emotional support still comes from family members.
- Adolescent: trust and communicate with my friend which is really important. My friend is my source of social and emotional support, not family members.
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