The process that begins with analyzing and journalizing transactions and ends with the post-closing trial balance.
Another name for the income summary accountbecause it has the effect of clearing the revenue and expense accounts of their balances.
The entries that transfer the balances of the revenue, expense, and drawing accounts to the owner’s capital account.
The transfer process of converting temporary account balances to zero by transferring the revenue and expense account balances to Income Summary, transferring the income summary account balance to the retained earnings account, and transferring the dividends account to the retained earnings account.
closing the books
The process of transferring temporary accounts balances to permanent accounts at the end of the accounting period.
Cash and other assets that are expected to be converted to cash or sold or used up, usually within one year or less, through the normal operations of the business.
Liabilities that will be due within a short time (usually one year or less) and that are to be paid out of current assets.
The annual accounting period adopted by a business.
fixed assets (or plant assets)
Longterm or relatively permanent tangible assets such as equipment, machinery, and buildings that are used in the normal business operations and that depreciate over time.
An account to which the revenue and expense account balances are transferred at the end of a period.
Liabilities that usually will not be due for more than one year.
natural business year
A fiscal year that ends when business activities have reached the lowest point in an annual operating cycle.
A customer’s written promise to pay an amount and possibly interest at an agreed-upon rate.
real (permanent) accounts
Term for balance sheet accounts because they are relatively permanent and carried forward from year to year.
temporary (nominal) accounts
Accounts that report amounts for only one period.
The ability to convert assets into cash.
The ability of a firm to pay its debts as they come due.
A financial ratio that is computed by dividing current assets by current liabilities.
The excess of the current assets of a business over its current liabilities.
Transactions are analyzed and recorded in the journal.
Transactions are posted to the ledger.
An unadjusted trial balance is prepared.
Adjustment data are assembled and analyzed.
An optional end-of-period spreadsheet is prepared.
Adjusting entries are journalized and posted to the ledger.
An adjusted trial balance is prepared.
Financial statements are prepared.
Closing entries are journalized and posted to the ledger.
A post-closing trial balance is prepared.
Two sections of assets
current assets and property, plant, and equipment.