exam 3

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exam 3
2011-11-26 19:11:28

exam 3
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  1. glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is directly related
    the pressures that determine net filtration pressure
  2. angiotenisin ll and natriuretic peptide
    help regulate GFR
  3. mechanisms that regulate GFR work by
    adjusting blood flow into and out of the glomerulus and by altering the glomerular capillary surface area available for filtration
  4. normally GFR increases very
    little when systemic blood pressure rises
  5. all the following hormone affect Na+ , CL- , CA2+ and water reabsorption and K+ secretion by the renal tubules except

    . angiotensin ll
    . aldosterone
    . ADH
    . atrial natriuretic peptide
    . thyroid hormore
    . parathyroid hormore
    thyroid hormore
  6. principal cells
    cells in the last portion of the distal convoluted tubule and in the collecting ducts , regulated by ADH and aldosterone
  7. glomerulus
    a capillary network lying in the glomerular capsule and functioning in filtration
  8. nephron
    the functional unit of the kidney
  9. distal convoluted tube
    drains into a collecting duct
  10. renal corpuscle
    combined glomerulus and glomerular capsule , where plasma is filtered
  11. podocytes
    the visceral layer of the glomerular capsule consisting of modified simple squamous epithelial cells
  12. macula densa
    cells of the final portion of the ascending limb of the loop of henle that make contact with the afferent arteriole
  13. proximal convoluted
    site of obligatory water reaborption
  14. fenestrations
    pores in the glomerular endothelial cells that allow filtration of blood solutes but not blood cells and platelets
  15. intercalated cells
    can secrete H+ against a concentration gradient
  16. juxtaglomerular cells
    modified smooth muscle cells in the wall of the afferent arteriole
  17. aldosterone
    stimulates principal cells to secrete more k+ into tubular fluid and absorb more Na+ and CL- into tubular fluid
  18. renin
    enzyme secreted by juxtaglomerular cells
  19. angiotensin ll
    reduces glomerular filtration rate , increases blood volume and pressure
  20. atrial natriuretic peptide
    inhibits Na+ and H2O reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts
  21. ADH
    regulates facultative water reabsorption by increasing the water permeability of principal cells in the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts
  22. potassium
    the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid , plays a key role in establishing the resting membrane potential
  23. calcium
    the most abundant mineral in the body , plays important roles in blood clotting , neurotransmitter release , maintenance of muscle tone , and excitability of nervous and muscle tissue
  24. magnesium
    second most common intracellular cation , is a cofactor for enzymes involved in carbohydrate , protein and Na+ , K+ ATPase
  25. sodium
    the most abundant extracelluar cation , essential in fluid and electrolyte balance
  26. phosphate
    ions that are mostly combined with lipids , proteins , carbohydrates , nucleic acids , and ATP inside cells
  27. chloride
    most prevalent extracellular anion , can help balance the level of anions in differen fluid compartments
  28. bicarbonate
    second most prevalent extracellular anion , mainly regulated by the kidneys , important for acid-base balance
  29. buffers
    substances that act to prevent rapid , drastic changes in the pH of a body fluid
  30. electrolytes
    inorganic substances that dissociate into ions when in solution
  31. sever diarrhea
    metabolic acidosis
  32. excessive vomiting
    metabolic alkalosis
  33. airway obstruction
    respiratory acidosis
  34. inability of kidneys to excrete H+ from dietary proteins metabolism
    metabolic acidosis
  35. edem
    an abnormal increase in the volume of interstitial fluid
  36. hyperphosphatemia
    can occur during renal failure or destruction of body cells which releases phosphates into the blood
  37. water intoxication
    the swelling of cells due to water moving from plasma into interstitial fluid and then into cell
  38. dehydration
    occurs when water loss is greater than water gain
  39. hypernatremia
    can be caused by excessive sodium in diet or with dehydration
  40. hypovolemia
    condition that can occur as water moves out of plasma into interstitial fluid and blood volume decreases
  41. hypokalemia
    can be caused by decreased potassium intake or kidney disease , results in muscle fatigue , increased urine output , changes in electrocardiogram
  42. hypocalcemia
    can occur from hypoparathyroidism
  43. respiratory acidosis
    can be caused by emphysema , pulmonary edema , injury to the respiratory center of the medulla oblongata , airway destruction , or disorders of the muscles involved in breathing
  44. hyponatremia
    can be caused by excessive water intake , excessive vomiting or aldosterone deficiency
  45. metabolic acidosis
    can be caused by actual loss of bicarbonate ions , ketosis or failure of kidneys to excreted H+
  46. metabolic alkalosis
    can be caused by excessive vomiting of gastric contents gastric suctioning use of certain diuretics , severe dehydration or excessive intake of alkaline drugs
  47. respirator alkalosis
    can be caused by oxygen deficiency at high altituden , stroke , or severe anxiety
  48. mucosa
    epithelium: nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium in the mouth , pharynx , esophagus , and anal canal , protective
  49. simple columnar epithelium in the
    stomach and intestines , ecocrine cells and endocrine cells
  50. lamina propria
    areolar connective tissue with blood and lymphatic vessels , routes by which absorbed nutrient are transported to other tissures of the body , mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue ( MALT )
  51. muscularis mucosae
    thin layer of smooth muscle , makes many small folds in the mucous membrane of stomach and small intestine to increase surface area
  52. submucosa
    • - areolar connective tissue binding mucosa to muscularis
    • - contains many blood and lymphatic vessels
    • - submucosal plexus: extensive network of neurons
    • - may also contain glands and lymphatic tissue
  53. muscularis
    - voluntary skeletal muscle found in the mouth , pharynx , upper 2/3 of esophagus and external anal sphincter

    • - involuntary smooth muscle in rest of tract : generally arranged in two sheets
    • . inner sheet : circular fibers grind
    • . outer sheets of longitudinal fibers: push food along
    • helps to break down food , mix it with digestive secrections , and propel it along the tract

    myenteric plexus between muscle layer: a second network of neurons
  54. serosa
    • - outermost covering of portions of GI tract suspended in abdominopelvic cavity
    • - also called : viseral peritoneum
  55. enteric nervous system (ENS)
    • - intrinsic set of nerves " brain of the gut "
    • - neurons that extend form esophagus to anus
    • - 2 plexuses
    • - myenteric plexus : GI tract motility
    • - submucosal plexus : control secrections
    • - chemoreceptor and strectch receptors
  56. autonomic nervous system
    • - extrinsic set of nerves
    • - parasympathetic stimulation increases secretion and motility by stimulating ENS
    • - sympathetic stimulation decreases secretions and activity by inhibiting ENs
  57. peritoneum
    • largest serous membrane of the body divided into
    • - parietal peritoneum
    • - visceral peritoneum
  58. parietal peritoneum
    lines wall of abdominopelvic cavity
  59. visceral peritoneum
    • - covers some organs in the cavity and is their serosa
    • - the space between is peritoneal cavity
  60. five major peritoneal folds
    • - greater omentum
    • - falciform ligament
    • - lesser omentum mesentery
    • - mesocolon
    • - mesentery
    • - weave between visera binding organs together and to the walls of the abdominal cavity