Urinary System

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Author:
lkorkowski
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116009
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Urinary System
Updated:
2011-11-22 15:23:26
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Urinary System
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a&p2 lecture
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  1. What are the functions of the Urinary System?
    • 1. Excretion of metabolic waste
    • 2. Regulation of fluid & electrolyte balance
    • 3. Regulation of blood acidity (pH)
    • 4. Regulation of blood volume & blood pressure by the enzyme Renin (kidney)
    • 5. Production of Erythropoietin hormone that stimulate bone marrow for RBC formation
    • 6. Activation of Vitamin D to Calcitriol that stimulate intestinal absorption of Calcium
  2. What is the only functional part of the Urinary system?
    • The 2 kidneys are the only functional part.
    • 2 Ureters are tubes
    • Urinary bladder is a holding bowl
    • Urethra is a tube
  3. What covers the kidney?
    Renal Capsule
  4. What is the outer region of the kidney?
    Renal Cortex
  5. What is the inner region of the kidney with the renal pyramids?
    Renal Medulla
  6. What is the apex or renal tip of the renal pyramid?
    Renal Papilla
  7. What is the cortical tissue between the renal pyramids?
    Renal Columns
  8. What part recieves urine from the renal papilla?
    Minor Calyx
  9. What collects urine from two or more minor calyces?
    Major Calyx
  10. What collects urine from all major calyces?
    Renal Pelvis
  11. What carries urine from renal pelvis to bladder?
    Ureter
  12. What is the Nephron?
    Microscopic filtering unit of the kidneys that consist of a renal corpuscle and renal tubules
  13. What percent of nephrons are found in the renal cortex?
    85% and they are called Cortical Nephrons
  14. What percent of nephrons are found in the renal pyramids?
    15% and they are called juxtamedullary nephrons or medullary nephrons
  15. What is the renal corpuscle made up of?
    • Loops of capillaries called glomerulus
    • Double layered bowman's capsule surrounds glomerulus
  16. What are the renal tubules?
    • Proximal convoluted tubule - connects to bowman's capsule
    • Loop of Henle - with descending and ascending limbs
    • Distal convoluted tubule - is distal part of nephron
    • Collecting duct - connects to several DCT's
  17. What are the 4 processes required for urine formation?
    • 1. Filtration from glomerulus capillaries blood into Bowman's capsular space to form filtrate
    • 2. Tubular Reabsorption from filtrate into blood
    • 3. Tubular Secretion from blood into filtrate
    • 4. Excretion of the final product as urine
  18. High glomerular capillary blood pressure of ?mmHg forces water and dissolved solutes through the glomerular capillary wall into bowman's capsular space to form initial filtrate?
    55mmHg
  19. What is the ?mmHg (pressure) in normal capillaries?
    17mmHg
  20. What is filtered into Bowman's capsule?
    Only water and dissolved solutes
  21. What is not allowed into Bowman's Capsule?
    No plasma proteins or blood cells are filtered
  22. What does filtrate consist of?
    • Waste products such as urea and uric acid that must be eliminated in the urine.
    • Useful substances such as water, organic nutrients and electrolytes that must be kept
  23. What is the term and abbreviation for the amount of blood flow thru the kidneys in one minute?
    Renal Blood Flow (RBF)
  24. What is the term and the abbreviation for the amount of filtrate formed by kindeys in one minute?
    Glomerular Filtrate Rate (GFR)
  25. What % of renal blood becomes filtrate? What % of renal blood passes again and again.....?
    • 10% becomes filtrate
    • 90% cycles again and again
  26. What controls the regulation of GFR?
    • Regulation is by controlling glomerular blood flow.
    • Dialation of afferent (arrive) arteriole and constriction of efferent (exit) arteriole increase GFR
    • Constriction of the afferent (arrive) arteriole and dilation of the efferent (exit) arteriole decreases GFR
  27. Dialation of afferent (arrive) arteriole and constriction of efferent (exit) arteriole does what to the Glomerular Filtration Rate or GFR?
    Increases GFR
  28. Constriction of the afferent (arrive) arteriole and dilation of the efferent (exit) arteriole does what to the Glomerular Filtration Rate or GFR?
    decreases GFR
  29. What are the three regulations of the Glomerular Filtration Rate or GFR?
    • 1. Autoregulation - Regulation of the GFR by the kidneys themselves
    • 2. Neural Regulation - Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) affects GFR
    • 3. Hormonal Regulation - Hormones indirectly affect GFR.
    • *Done by controlling glomerular blood flow
  30. What is most of the filtrate moved from the nephron tubules back into?
    • Capillaries blood
    • (peritubular capillaries)
  31. In tubular reabsorption water is absorbed by osmosis and solutes are reabsorbed by what 4 ways?
    • 1. Diffusion - Increased concentration to decreased concentration
    • 2. Active Trasport - cell uses ATP energy to perform work
    • 3. Co-transport - molecule hooks to ATP and hitchhikes
    • 4. Pinocytosis - cell eating
  32. Where does most of the reabsorption take place?
    Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
  33. How much filtrate is formed each day?
    150-180L
  34. How much urine is eliminated each day?
    1-2L
  35. How much fluid is reabsorbed each day?
    148-178L
  36. How much H2O is reabsorbed in the PCT?
    65%
  37. How much H2O is reabsorbed in descending limb of Henle?
    15%
  38. How much H2O is reabsorbed in the ascending limb of Henle?
    None! 0%
  39. How much H2O is reabsorbed in the Distal Convoluted Tubule or DCT?
    10%
  40. How much H2O is reabsorbed in the collecting ducts or CD?
    10%
  41. What solutes move from the blood of the peritubular capillaries into the filtrate?
    Potassium, ammonium, hydrogen, and bicarbonate ions are secreted into filtrate
  42. Urine is composed of 2 things. Name them and their percents.
    • 95% water
    • 5% dissolved solutes
  43. What does tubular secretion balance?
    regulates acid-base balance and electrolyte concentration
  44. What are the 5% of dissolved solutes that are eliminated?
    • Excess electrolytes - sodium, calcium, potassium
    • Urea - by protein metabolism (toxic)
    • Creatinine - by muscle melabolism (toxic)
    • Uric Acid - by nucleic acids metabolism (poisonous & causes gout)
  45. What is released when decreased body water trigger the hypothalamus? From what gland?
    Antidiuretic hormone from the posterior pituitary gland
  46. What does ADH do to the cells of the distal convoluted tubule and the collecting duct?
    makes the cells more permeable to water and increase water reabsorption back into the capillary blood
  47. ADH makes urine dark yellow and ....?
    Concentrated
  48. With optimum body water what gland stops secreting what hormone?
    hypothalamus stops secreting ADH
  49. With urine dilution the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct become less permeable to water and causes what?
    less water reabsorption
  50. More water stays in the filtrate causing urine to be what color and volume?
    large volume of pale yellow dilute urine
  51. What is obligatory urine volume?
    The minimum urine volume that MUST be excreted by the kidneys to get rid of metabolic waste and excess ions = 0.5 L/day
  52. The body of the urinary bladder is covered by a sheet of smooth muscle called what?
    • Detrusor muscle
    • Involuntary
  53. The two ureters enter the bladder at the uppermost angles of the what? (which open into the neck)
    The trigone
  54. What do the detrusor smooth muscle fibers form?
    • Internal urethral sphincter (in the neck)
    • involuntary
  55. The skeletal muscle fibers form the external urethral sphincter which in under conscious control of what nerve?
    • Pudendal
    • voluntary
  56. What is micturation?
    Micturation is the act of emptying the urinary baldder
  57. The sensory stretch receptors in the urinary bladder are from what system?
    S.N.S. - Sympathetic Nervous System
  58. The pelvic nerve and spinal cord signals come from what system?
    P.N.S. Parasympathetic Nervous System
  59. Inhibitation or facilitation of the bladder is done by conscious control of what?
    Pudendal nerve

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