Embryo-kidney, bladder

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  1. Urogenital system
    • Intermediate mesoderm
    • -urogenital ridge
    • --gonadal ridge
    • --nephrogenic cord-nephron: produce the urine, ducts: collecting system (collect urine an dtake to bladder)
  2. three separate kidneys develop
    • pronephros-neck
    • mesonephros
    • metanephros-beomes adult kidney
  3. Pronephros
    • appears in 4th week and then degenerates
    • -Pronephric ducts
    • -Pronephric tubule-never form urine
  4. mesonephros
    • appears late in 4th week, functional until 11 weeks
    • males-becomes reproductive system
    • -mesonephric ducts-was pronephric duct-renamed
    • -mesonephric tubule-produce urine
  5. metanephros
    • begin to develop in 5th week, functional and definitive
    • -ureteric bud-outgrowth from mesonephric duct
    • -metanephrogenic blastema (or mass)-intermediate mesoderm surrounds uteric bud
  6. induction on nephrons
    • mesonephric duct-induces nephrons in adjacent nephrogenic cord-get vesicle formed
    • -blood supply forms in the glomerulus
    • -collecting system forms to connect to the mesonephric duct
    • -mesonephric excertion-urine
  7. nephron
    • functional unit of kidney
    • -glomeruli (capillaries)-lateral plate
    • -Bowman's capsule-IM
    • -Mesonephric tubule-IM
  8. development of true kidney
    • metanephros
    • -uteric bud (metanephric duct): out growht from mesonephric duct
    • -metanephric blastema: derived from the nephrogenic cord
    • ureteric bud (collecting system)-ureter, pelvis, major calyces, minor calyces, collecting tubules
    • metanephric blastema (urine formation)-renal vesicles (lat plate), Bowman's capsule, Proximal and distal convoluted tubules, Loop of Henle
  9. development of the collecting system
    • ureteric bud first contacts metanephric blastema and will give rise to renal pelvis
    • ureteric bud bifurcates and branches coalesce (grow back together) to form major calyces
    • branches will branch again and then coalesce to form the minor calyces
  10. development of the nephron
    • nephron originates as a vesicle within the blastemic cap surrounding the ampulla of a collecting duct
    • vesicle elongates into a tube and glomerulus forms at one end
    • tubule near the glomerulus will invaginate and form Bowman's capsule
    • the other end of the tubule lengthens and differentiates into the proximal convoluted tubule, Loop of Henle, and the distal convoluted tubule
    • 1) duct induces nephron
    • 2) tubule and duct system meet
  11. Renal blood supply and ascent of kidneys
    • adult position by 9th week
    • ascent results from caudal growth of embryo
    • kidneys rotate 90 degrees during ascent
    • receive blood supply from vessels that are closest to them
  12. kidney abnormalities
    • pelvic kidney-stay down (pancake)-functional-no problems
    • horseshow kidney-poles fuse-can start to ascend but can't because of IMA at L5
    • Accessory renal vessels-due to ascent of kidney
  13. ureter and bladder
    • ureter derived from mesonephric duct and metanephric duct
    • bladder is hindgut endoderm
    • trigone is mesoderm
  14. bladder
    • hindgut endoderm
    • cloacal membrane-endoderm and ectoderm
    • -urogenital membrane-endoderm and ectoderm
    • -anal membrane
    • Allantois to urachus (median fold) to median umbilical ligament
    • urogenital sinus (endoderm)
    • -vesicle part: bladder
    • -pelvis part: urethra(f), prostatic urethra (m)
    • -Phallic: lining of vaginal vestibule (f), spongy urethra (m)
  15. allantois: Abnormalities
    • urachal fistula-urine leaks out umbilicus
    • urachal cyst
    • urachal sinus
  16. congenital abnormalities of the bladder
    • exstrophy of the bladder (ectopic vesicae)
    • -arises during body folding (4th week)
    • -defective closure of ventral abdominal wall
    • -exposure of mucosa of the posterior wall of bladder
    • -trigone-mesoderm
    • Epispadias
    • -improper location of genital tubercles caudal to cloacal membrane-bladder leads out of penis
  17. suprarenal glands
    • Medulla (N.C.)-chromaffin system-symp. ganglia displaces, preganglionic
    • Capsule-touch connective tissue-mesonephric mesoderm (I.M.)
    • Cortex
    • -coelomic epithelium (somatic mesoderm)
    • --fetal cortex: first cellular wave
    • --adult cortex: second cellular wave
    • -fetal cortex: pituitary ACTH, glucocorticoids, and dihydroepiandrosterone (estrogen precursor)
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Embryo-kidney, bladder
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