Psych Quiz #2

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chiroclown
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11603
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Psych Quiz #2
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2010-03-22 15:24:23
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Psych Quiz #2
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Chapters 4, 6, 7
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  1. 3 Body Systems
    1) Nervous

    2) Immune

    3) Endocrine
  2. Stress Response
    * Psychological and physiological phenomenon

    * Begins in the nervous system- sounds the alarm
  3. Nervous System (NS)

    • Central (NS) Peripheral (NS)
    • Somatic (NS) Automatic (NS)
    • Sympathtic NS Catabolic Parasympathetic NS Anabolic
  4. Central Nervous System (CNS)
    Brain and Spinal Cord
  5. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    All the rest
  6. Sarrotic Nervous System (SNS)
    * Musculoskeletal NS or 'voluntary'.

    * Regulates voluntary motor movements.
  7. Autonomic NS (ANS)
    * Body functions with little voluntary control.

    * Respiration, contraction of smooth muscles, goose bumps

    • * Divided into 2:
    • 1) Sympathetic
    • 2) Parasympathetic
  8. Sympathetic NS
    *Activated in stress by hypothalamus

    *Fight or flight

    * Activation of Catabolic (energy consumption)

    * Processes blood flow up to brain and down to stomach/ intestinal organs

    *With Parasympathetic: keeps metabolic process in a state of equilibrium
  9. Parasympathetic NS
    • *Works to conserve and store energy (anabolic)
    • *Holds the fuel for the sympathetic
    • *with Sympathetic, keeps metabolic process in a state of equilibrium
  10. Brain
    • * Part of Central Nervous System
    • 1) Brain makes decision
    • 2) Communicates to periphery by signals passed through the spinal cord to appropriate periphery target (muscles, organs)
    • 3) Same time--> the periphery sends sensory info to the brain
    • 4) Process repeats

    • *Brain has 3 layers:
    • HIndbrain
    • Midbrain
    • Forebrain

    * Retrainable and can cross work (rats eyes, ears)
  11. Hindbrain
    *Core- deepest brain structures

    *Regulates general arousal muscle tone

    • * with Midbrain, communication conduit for info coming and going to
    • periphery
  12. Midbrain
    *Surrounds hindbrain

    *The Reticular Activating System (RAS) runs through the midbrain

    * with Hindbrain is the communication conduit for info coming and going to periphery
  13. Reticular Activating System (RAS)
    • * Most important structure related to stress response
    • * Passes through the hindbrain, midbrain and forebrain
    • * Overstimulation of is a constant flight or fight
    • * A key to stress management is reducing chronically high levels of arousal
    • * Constantly acting, taking in sensory and determines what should be attended to
  14. Forebrain
    • * Top layer
    • * Outside most part of is the cerebral cortex
    • * Most advanced part of brain
    • 1) Basil Ganglia
    • 2) Limbic System
    • 3) Thalamus
    • 4) Hypothalamus
  15. Cerebral Cortex
    • * Part of Forebrain
    • * Makes us uniquely human
    • * Language, most of conciousness, appraisal process
    • * Wrinkly part of brain
    • * Wrinkles equal a new learned item (brain doesn't grow/ no physical room to increase)
  16. Basal Ganglia
    • * Regulates Motor Movements
    • * Part of the Forebrain
  17. Amygdala
    • * Almond
    • * Fear
    • * PTSD is overactive amygdala
    • * sits close to hippocampus to remember fear/ protection but can cause PTSD and phobias
  18. Hippocampus
    • * Water Monster
    • * Longterm monster
  19. Limbic System
    • * Regulates emotion
    • * Part of forebrain
    • * primary target of RAS
    • * Hippocampus and Amygdala
  20. Thalamus
    • * Regulates 4 'f's' (fighting, fleeing, feeding, mating)
    • * part of forebrain
  21. Neuron
    • * Specialized cells of Central Nervous System
    • * 2 types of projections:
    • 1) dendrites
    • 2) Axon
  22. Dendrites
    • * Short branchy projections of neuron
    • * Stress increases in neuron firing and increases in growth
  23. Axon
    • * Single, long slender projection with branches at the end (terminal buttons)
    • * Chemicals inside vesicles--> neurotransmitters
  24. Synaptic Cleft
    small space that seperates axon of one neuron from dendrite of another
  25. Synaptic activity
    general term for events that ocur in synapse
  26. Action Potential
    Transmittion of information via electric-chemical process that fires down the axon
  27. Receptor
    • * Imbdded on surface of the dendrites (cell body)
    • * Neurotransmitters cross the synaptic cleft to receptor
    • * Stress increases of neuron firing adn the # of these in limbic system
  28. Receptor blocking drugs
    Useful in treating conditions caused by overactive neurotransmitter
  29. GABA
    • * Inhibits anxiety
    • * Modualtes anxiety
  30. Lithium
    Natural occuring salt used to treat bipolar originally
  31. Proprioseption
    Tell what's connect to what
  32. Paradox of Change
    • * We do not change by trying to change.
    • * We must accept who/ how we are.
  33. Secondary Gain--> Freud
    We must get some sort of pleasure out of behavior and/ or consequence
  34. Benadryl
    First drug used for mental illness--> sedative
  35. Dopamine
    • * Modulates mood and reinforcement processes
    • * Excessive = dillusions, pyschzophrenia
    • * Too little= parkinson disease (lack of neurological stimulus
  36. Serotonin
    Modulates mood, sleep and pain
  37. Norepinephrine
    • *Excitatory neurotransmitter
    • *Modulates arousal processes (sleep/ wakefulness)
  38. Acytecholine
    Involved in memory process
  39. Endogenous Opiates
    Modulates pain and feelings of euphoria
  40. Endocrine System
    • *Complex system of glands located primarily in periphery
    • * the glands influence/ interact with other body systems by releasing hormones into the bloodstream
    • * When threat is detected glands release hormones
  41. Pituitary and Adrenal Medulla
    Active in regulating stress response in Edocrine System
  42. Pineal Gland
    Thymus
  43. Pituitary
    Stomach
  44. Thyroid
    adrenal
  45. Parathyroid
    Pancreas
  46. Kidney
    Duodenum
  47. Ovary
    Testis
  48. Hypothalamus
    • *Controls 2 stress reactivity pathways via its influence on pituitary and adrena
    • 1) secretes hormones that activates pituitary
    • 2) pituitary secretes hormones
    • 3) hormones activates adrenal
  49. HPA Pathway
    • * Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis
    • * Excessive activation results in clogged arteries, decrease effectiveness of immune system
  50. Glucocorticoids
    • *Fuel for fight-or-flight
    • *increases blood sugar, mobilizing free fatty acids and increases blood pressure
  51. Immune System Structure
    • Composed of 2 primary organs:
    • 1) Thymas (T-lymphocytes)
    • 2) Bursa (B-Lymphocytes)
  52. Lymphocytes
    Cells that permit immune system to respond in a highly specific manner to substances recognized as foreighn to body
  53. Natural Killer Cell (NK)
    Detroys celss that have been envaded by foreign substances
  54. Hallmarks of Immune System
    • to distinguish self from non-self:
    • 1) diversity (vast array of foreign substances to which system responds)
    • 2) specificty and Memory (response to future interactions
  55. Anergy
    Inability to react to a battery of anigens (foreign substances)
  56. Anergy
    Inability of the immune system to react and attack antigens with normal strength
  57. Autoimmune Disorder
    Disorders of the immune system in which the body does not recognize its own cells and mistakenly reacts to its own itssues as if they were antigens
  58. Benzodiazepines
    Class of man-made drugs (e.g. valium) that are designed to reduce anxiety
  59. Closed-looped models of stress
    systems approaches that hold that feedback governs many behaviors and also reflects the capacity for equilibrium
  60. Open-Looped modesl of stress
    Models that view stress as a fixed system in which continual stress adds up and compounds existing problems.
  61. Stressed-Induced Analgesia
    Increase in pain tolerance that occursin response to specific stressors
  62. Endogeneous Opiates
    • * Naturally occurring opiatelike molecules
    • * Produces 2 major effects:
    • 1) analgesia
    • 2) euphoria
  63. Three Stages (Selye)
    • 1) Alarm--> body's initial response to stressor--> meausurable change in body systems
    • 2) Arousal is channeled into a limited # of body systems--> most efficient system for stressor activated
    • 3) Chronic overactivation of systems = breakdown, illness, disease
  64. Stress Management Interventions
    Any procedure designed to enhance ability to cope with stressors or with negative emotions elicited by them
  65. Stress Management Techniques
    • 1) designed for generally adequately adjusted people
    • 2) behavioraly oriented
    • 3)Short-term limited
    • 4) emphasis on self-administration with minimal guidance
  66. Influence/ popularity of stress management
    • 1) growth of community mental health
    • 2) diminishing influence of 'menatl disease'
    • 3) disenchantment w/ psychotherapy
    • 4) change in popular attitude towards mental health and self-help
  67. Main principle of community mental health
    if helped early enough and taught to use their own resources and social support people can deal w/ major stressors
  68. Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR)
    • *Systematically tensing then releasing different muscle groups
    • * Edmund Jacobson
  69. Meditation
    • 2 Categories:
    • 1) concentrative--> focus on single stimulus (word, phrase, image)
    • 2) nonconcentrative--> openess, expansion
  70. Mantra
    a word, sound or phrase thought to have particularly calming properties
  71. Basic elements of meditation
    • 1) quiet environment
    • 2) mental device
    • 3) passive attitude
    • 4) comfortable position
  72. Autogenic Traning
    • * Johannes Schultz
    • * Self-hypnotic procedure
    • * Self-exercise/ self-induction therapy
    • 1) passive concentration
    • 2) minimize extraneous stimulation
    • 3) focus on internal sensations
    • 4) repetition of verbal formulas
  73. Biofeedback
    * Teach control of stress-related physiological responses that have been operating in a maladaptive fashion
  74. Relaxation techniques
    Widely used by people in informal ways to mederate anxiety
  75. D'zurilla and Goldfried's Problem-Solving Model
    • * Cognitive behavioral approach
    • 1) Specify problematic situation
    • 2) generating problem-focused response
    • 3) try solutions
    • 4) evaluate effectivness
  76. 4 Major Stages for Effective Problem-Solving
    • 1) Problem definition and formulation: 'can-do' attitude, specify problem area
    • 2) Generation of Alternatives: Brainstorm possible solutions, 'freewheeling', creative
    • 3) Decision making: estimating the consequences of following a course of action
    • 4) Verification: implementing selected solutions and evaluating the desirability of consequences
  77. Group Therapy Settings
    • 1) Identifying frequently encountered stressful situations
    • 2) Providing Information
    • 3) Rehearsal
    • 4) Performance feedback and generalization
  78. Assertiveness Training
    • * Essential component of social skills training
    • * Direct and clear expression of one's thoughts and feelings and desires in a socially appropriate way
  79. 3 groups of assertive behaviors
    • 1) expressing positive feeling
    • 2) self-affirmation
    • 3) negative opinions (expressing justified anger)
  80. Origins of Nonassertivenes
    • * People born shy
    • * learning history is important
  81. Learning Assertiveness Skills
    • 1) ID specific assertive behavior
    • 2) Rehearsal of assertive behavior
    • 3) apply newly learned skills
  82. Passive Agressive Behavior
    • * Sugar coated hostility
    • * Indirect and covert ways of expressing resistance and achieveing the ends designed to preclde retaliation by the target of behavior

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