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What is social identity?
- Social identity is a self-definition that guides precisely how we conceptualize and evaluate our selves
- Include many characteristics such as gender, interpersonal relationships, vocations and avocations, political and ideological affilations, specific attributes e.g homosexual, ethnicity or religious affilations.
What is self concept?
Self concept is an organised collection of beliefs and self-perceptions about oneself. It provides a framework which guides how we process information about ourselves.
What are the external factors that affect self concept?
- Self concept is influenced by age as different demands are made on us at different ages.
- Self concept is likely to change in response to feedback that is inconsistant with current self schema or relocating in different community.
- Self concept will change with one entering a new occupation.
What are the different types of self awareness?
- Subjective self awareness- ability of the organism to differentiate itself to some degree from its physical and social environment.
- Objective self-awareness - organism capacity to be the object of its own attention, to be aware of its own state of mind "to know it knows, to remember it remembers".
- Symbolic self-awareness - ability to form an abstract cognitive representation of self through language.
What is the self reference effect?
- An individual's ability to do a better job of processing self relevant information than anything else
- We spend more time thinking about words or events that are relevant to ourselves (elaborative processing) and organise self relevant information in categories that are already present (categorical processing)
- e.g if one is name Byrne, one tends to remember characters with the name Byrne better.
- e.g. between asking a question on a series of word based on self-description and one that does not, people remember more words if the question is based on self description.
What does the social self comprise of?
- The social self comprises of 2 components
- 1) that derived from interpersonal relationships
- 2) derived from belonging to larger, less personal groupings such as race, ethnicity, or culture.
What is self esteem?
- Self esteem is an evaluation or attitude formed of oneself.
- There are three motives for self evaluation:
- 1) self assessment ( to obtain accurate knowledge about themselves)
- 2) self enhancement ( to provide positive information about themselves)
- 3) self verification (to confirm what they already know about themselves)
- We tend to judge ourselves based on social comparisions.
What are the different kinds of social comparision and how does it affect self esteem when compared with in groups, someone who is very close and strangers?
- Downward social comparision - happens when you perceive that someone is worse off than you.
- Comparing to strangers - generate positive affect and raises self esteem
- Comparing to in-group - feel good due to contrast effect
- Comparing to some one close - self esteem lowered as the person is associated with inferiority (assimliation effect)
- Upward social comparision - observe someone better than yourself.
- Comparing with strangers - no effect on self esteem
- Comparing with in-group - feel depressed, results in lower self esteem
- Comparing with someone very close - raise self esteem, positive effect generated due to assimilation effect.
What is self focusing?
- Self focussing is the extent to which attention is directed towards oneself.
- Ability to change focus is possible due to self regulation of one's thoughts.
- Self focusing influence mood, and mood also influence the direction of self focus.
What is self monitoring?
- Self monitoring refers to the tendency to regulate one's behavior on the basis of external cues such as how others react (high self monitoring) or on the basis of internal cues such as one own beliefs and attitudes.
- Low self monitors tend to behave in a consistent way regardless of the situation, while high self monitors tend to change as the situation changes. High self monitors engage in role playing in order to obtain positive evaluation from other people and tend to use the third person.
What is self efficacy?
- Self efficacy is a person's evaluation of his or her ability or competency to perform a task, reach a goal , or overcome an obstacle.
- Self efficacy tends to be consistent over time, but it is by no means fixed.
- Positive feedback about one's skills brings about an increase in self-efficacy.
- High self-efficacy is crucial to the successful performance of task as varied as school work, physical exercise, health, politcal action, and avoiding behavioral transgressions.