grammar.txt

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debbidot
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116068
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grammar.txt
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2011-11-11 09:16:13
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Accent Mandarin Chinese Grammar
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  1. {n} bǐ {n} {adj/adv}
    • {n} 比 {n} {adj/adv}
    • first item is more {adj} than second
    • Tā de miàn bāo bǐ wǒ de miàn bao xiǎo = your bread is smaller than my bread
  2. {n} hé {n} (yī yàng)/(chà bù duō) {adj}
    • {n} 和 {n} (一样)/(差不多) {adj}
    • items are (the same)/(almost the same) {adj}
    • Tā de miàn hé wǒ de miàn bao (yī yàng)/(chà bù duō) duō shào = your bread and my bread are (same)/(almost the same) size
  3. {n} méi yǒu {n} {adj/adv}
    • {n} 没有 {n} {adj/adv}
    • negative form of bǐ: first item is not as {adj} as second
    • Tā de miàn bāo méi yǒu wǒ de miàn bao xiǎo = your bread is not smaller than my bread
  4. yuè lái yuè {adj}
    • 越来越 {adj}
    • more and more {adj}
    • yuè lái yuè rè = hotter and hotter
  5. yuè {adj} yuè {adj}
    • 越{adj}越 {adj}
    • the more {adj} the more {adj}
    • yuè kuài yuè hǎo = the faster the better
  6. {v} qǐ lái {adj}
    • {v} 起来{adj}
    • to appear to be like adjective
    • Nǐ kàn qǐ lái máng = You look like you're busy
  7. {v} qǐ lái xiàng {n}
    • {v} 起来像{n}
    • to appear to resemble noun
    • Tīng qǐ lái xiàng Shànghǎi huà = sounds like Shanghainese
  8. hé {n} bǐ, {n} {adj}
    • 和 {n} 比, {n} {adj}
    • compare 2 items - adjective applies to 2nd
    • hé Běi Jīng bǐ, Shāng hǎi de jī huì gèng duō=Compared to Beijing, Shanghai has more opportunities
  9. hé {n} bǐ, {pronoun} gèng xǐ huān{n}
    • 和 {n} 比, {pronoun} 更喜欢 {n}
    • compared to 1st noun, {pronoun} prefers 2nd noun
    • hé lán sè bǐ, wǒ gèng xǐ huān hōng sè=I prefer red to blue.
  10. yǒu yī diǎn
    • 有一点
    • adverb/adjective meaning a little bit, but with negative connotation
    • yǒu yī diǎn máng = a little bit (too) busy
  11. shǎo {verb}
    • 少{verb}
    • do less of {verb)
    • shǎo hē jiǔ = drink less alcohol
  12. duō {verb}
    • 多{verb}
    • do more of {verb)
    • duō hē shuǐ = drink more water
  13. {adj} de
    • {adj} 的
    • makes adjective (or phrase) a noun
    • Wǒ yào mǎi xīn de=I want to buy a new one (adj becomes n)
  14. {n phrase} de
    • {n phrase} 的
    • Turns {n phrase} into an {adj}
    • Míng tiān qù BěiJīng de fēi jī piào = ticket for tomorrow's flight to Beijing
  15. {n}{v} de {attribute}
    • {n}{v} 得 {attribute}
    • applies attribute to verb: verb must immed precede de
    • nǐ chàng de hěn hǎo = you sing very well; nǐ tiào sǔ tiào de hěn hǎo=you dance the dance very well
  16. bǎ {obj} {v} {compl}
    • 把 {obj} {v} {compl}
    • emphasize result of action
    • gěi wǒ shū=give me the book, bǎ shū gěi wǒ= give ME the book; hē le chá=drank tea, bǎ chá hē le=finished tea
  17. shì … de
    • 是…的
    • emphasize what is after shì
    • Tā qù Beijing' becomes Tā qù shì BeiJing de=he went to BEIJING; Shì tā qù Beijing de=HE went to Beijing
  18. liǎng diǎn
    • 两点
    • two o'clock
    • two o'clock
  19. {v} {modifier} {obj}
    • verb object phrases can be split by modifier
    • kai yi ge xiao shi hui=have 1 hour meeting, xia da xue=snow heavily
  20. {v} {obj}
    kai hui=have meeting, xia xue=snowing, jian mian=meet
  21. yīn wèi. . .suǒ yǐ . . .
    • 因为...所以…
    • because….. then . . .
    • Yīn wèi jīn tiān xià yǔ, suǒ yǐ wǒ zài jiā. = because it's raining today, I stay home.
  22. rú guǒ . . . rán hòu . . .
    • 如果...然后…
    • If…. then…
    • Ru guǒ yǒu shí jiān, rán hǒu wǒ qù lǚ yóu=If have time then I will take a trip
  23. [suī rán] {a} dàn shì {b}
    • [虽然] {a}但是{b}
    • [although] {a} but {b}: event {a} and {b} are equal
    • Wǒ hěn xǐ huān Shànghǎi dàn shì rén tài duō le: both are equal
  24. {a} zhǐ shì {b}
    • {a}只是{b}
    • {a} just {b}: event {b} is a minor thing
    • Wǒ hěn xǐ huān Shànghǎi zhǐ shì rén tài duō le: too many people is a minor thing
  25. bù dān.. ér qiě…
    • 不单 {A} 而且{B}
    • not only….but also… (structure must be parallel)
    • Tiān qī bú dàn xià dà yǔ, ér qiě yǒu shǎn diàn=weather not only heavy rain, but also lightning
  26. zhǐ {v}
    • 只{v}
    • only {v}
    • Wǒ zhǐ yǒu 100 kuài = I only have 100 kuai.
  27. duì {n} {v}
    • 对{n} {v}
    • to {n} do {v}
    • duì fù mǔ shuō=say to parents duì yīn yuè yǒu xīng qù=interest in music (duì ~ to)
  28. bǎ {obj} {v} {complement/v object}
    • 把 {obj} {v} {complement}
    • Similar to {v} {obj} but emhpasises the verb/complement.
    • Qǐng xǐ yī fu = Please wash the clothes; Qǐng bǎ yī fu xǐ yī xià = Please WASH the clothes. (here 'yī xià' is the required comlement, not just here for politeness)
  29. {a}, {b}, hái yǒu {c}, duō {...}
    • {a}, {b}, 还有 {c}, … 多 {adj}
    • {a} {b} and also {c}, all are {...}
    • Běi jīng, Xī'ān, hái yǒu Yún nán, wǒ dōu gù guò = Beijing, Xi'an, and Yunnan - I've been to all.
  30. {#} {meas} duō {n}
    • {#} {meas} 多 {n}
    • more than {#} of {n}, but less than one more
    • yī ge duō yuè = more than 1 month but less than 2 months
  31. {#} duō {meas} {n}
    • {#} 多 {meas} {n}
    • more than {#} of {n}; #=20, then 2x
    • tā mǎi le shí píng duō pī jiǔ = he bought 1x (10-19) bottlles of beer.
  32. {verb) bú dào
    • {v} 不到
    • negative result of {v}
    • zhǎo = look for; zhǎo bú dào = not/didn't find
  33. {verb} dào
    • {v} 到
    • the result of {v}
    • zhǎo = look for; zhǎo dào = find
  34. zài {place} {v}
    • 在 {place} {v}
    • {v} happened at {place}
    • zài běijīng chū shēng=born in Beijing
  35. {v} yú {place}
    • {v} 于 {place}
    • {v} happened at {place}-more often written form
    • chū shēng yú běijīng=born in Beijing
  36. shén me dōu hǎo, jiù shì…
    • 什么都好,就是
    • everything is good, but….
    • tā shén me dōu hǎo, jiù shǐ pí qì bù hǎo=he is good, but his temperment is not good
  37. {a} zài {b} (de) {position}
    • {a} 在 {b} (的) {position}
    • {a} is {position} to {b}
    • Bēi zi zài zhōu zi (de) shàng miàn = Cup is on table
  38. {a} {position} yǒu {b}
    • {a} {position} 有 {b}
    • at {position} {a} there be {b}
    • Zhuō zi shàng yǒu liáng bēi zi = two cups on the table
  39. jǐ {…}
    • 几{…}
    • question word - how many? (small number)
    • jī dian?=what time; jǐ gè rén?=how many people; Xīng qi jǐ?=how any weeks
  40. zài {v}
    • 在 {v}
    • {v} is happening
    • zài shuō = speaking (v is happening)
  41. yǐ jīng {v} le
    • yǐ jīng {v} le
    • {v} already happened
    • Fěi jī yǐ jīng dēng jī le = the plane alreaded boarded
  42. yào {v} le
    • 要 {v} 了
    • {v} is about to happen
    • Yào xià yǔ le = it's about to rain
  43. {v} wán
    • {v}完
    • {v} is finished to completion
    • Wǒ xiǎng jīn tiān zuò wán=I want to finish it today
  44. yǐ jīng {v} le (past)
    • 已经 {v} 了 (past)
    • {v} already completed.
    • Wǒ yǐ jīng mǎi le piào = I already bought the ticket
  45. {v} le (past event)
    • {v} 了 (past event)
    • {v} completed
    • Tā jié le hūn = He celebrated his marriage (still married!)
  46. {v} guò
    • {v} 过
    • {v} happened in past, no longer happening
    • wǒ kàn guò zhè ge jiàn yǐng. = I saw this move.
  47. {v} guò (past event)
    • {v} 过 (past event)
    • {v} happened in the past
    • wǒ xué guò hàn yǔ = I studied Chinese
  48. {v} guò (unknown if still)
    • {v} 过 (unknown if still)
    • {v} happened in the past, maybe still is
    • Tā jié guò hūn = He celebrated his marriage - may or may not still be married.
  49. {v} le (future event)
    • {v} 了 (future event)
    • {v} will be completed
    • zuó tiān wǒ mǎi le yī tiáo qún zi = tomorrow I will (finish buying) the skirt
  50. měi yǒu {v} guò
    • 没有 {v} 过
    • haven't done something
    • wǒ měi yǒu chī guò = I haven't eaten
  51. kuài [yào] {v} le
    • 快 [要] {v} 了
    • {verb] is about to happen (more immediate than without kuài)
    • Wǒ kuài yào dào le = I am about to arrive
  52. Wǒ méi yǒu {v}
    • 我没有 {v}
    • I didn't do something - past tense. No 了here - by definition past tense
    • Wǒ méi yǒu qù = I didn't go (No 了- past implied)
  53. Wǒ bù {v}
    • 我不 {v}
    • I won't do something - future tense
    • Wǒ bù qù = I won't go
  54. yào {v}
    • 要 {v}
    • {v} will happen
    • Míng tiān wǒ yào mǎi piào=tomorrow I will buy tickets
  55. Cóng …… dào
    • 从 …… 到
    • From….until
    • Cóng shí diàn dào shí èr diàn = from 10am to 12 noon
  56. jīn vs zhè ge
    • 今 vs 这个
    • use jīn for year or day, zhè ge for week or month
    • jīn {nián,tiān}, zhè ge {xīng qī, yuè, zhōu mò}
  57. {time period} {v} {# cì} {obj}
    • {time period} {v} {# 次} {obj}
    • {v} {obj} happens (how many times) in (period of time)
    • yī gè yuè kàn yī cì diàn yǐng = watch movie once a week
  58. yī {event} jiù
    • 一 {event} 就
    • as soon as something happens
    • yī wǒ lái jiù = as soon as I come
  59. zhǐ yào {a} jiù {b}
    • 只要 {a} 就 {b}
    • as long as {a} then [noun] {b}
    • zhǐ yào wǒ yǒu kòng, wǒ jiù lái=as long as I have time then I'll come
  60. cóng …. yǐ lái
    • 从...以来
    • since…..
    • sóng sān yuè yǐ lái, wò pàng le shí jīn=since March I've gained 30 jin/pounds

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