anatomy myology and muscle physiology

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anatomy myology and muscle physiology
2011-11-11 11:15:30

anatomy myology and muscle physiology
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  1. non-striated [smooth] muscle
    • short, spindle-shaped cells
    • involuntary muscle
    • cells can divide
  2. striated cardiac muscle
    • long, branched fibers composed of many cells stacked end to end
    • involuntary
    • found in the wall of the heart
    • too specialized to divide
  3. striated skeletal muscle
    • each long fiber is one multinucleaed cell
    • voluntary, can at times be involuntary
    • too specialized to divide, but new cells can arise from associated satellite cells
  4. skeletal muscle organs
    muscle belly
    • has a reddish or meat like appearance
    • center of the muscle
  5. tendons
    connects muscle to bone
  6. origin of a muscle
    • where the muscle starts
    • less movable end
  7. insertion of a muscle
    • where the muscle ends
    • movable end
  8. skeletal muscle organs
    muscle cells
    • muscle cell or fiber
    • the fibers vary in size, raning from 0.1 - 0.5 mm in diameter and a few millimeters to 30 centimeters in length
  9. skeletal muscle organs
    connective tissue
    • loose connective tissue that forms an envelope around each muscle fiber
    • needs contact with blood and nerve supply
  10. skeletal muscle organs
    • dense irregular connective tissue that forms an envelope around a group of muscle cells
    • groups are called fasciculus
  11. skeletal muscle organs
    dense irregular connective tissue that forms the outer wrapping around the bundles of fasciculi to formthe belly of an individual muscle
  12. skeletal muscle organs
    an envelope of dense irregular connective tissue that wraps around a region of muscles in the body
  13. myofibril
    specialized contractile elements which constitute 80% of the colume of the muscle fiber
  14. thick filament
    • molecular motors
    • myosin molecules
    • myosin head is the binding site
  15. thin filament
    • binding sites for molecular motors
    • actin molecules
  16. troponin tropomyosin complex
    • covers molecular binding site
    • wraps around actin covering binding site so myosin cant bind
  17. sarcomere
    • basice functional unit of the contractile system within striated muscle tissue
    • the region between the two Z-discs
  18. the motor unit
    is the motor neuron and fibers/cells that single motor neuron contact
  19. calcuims role in initiating muscle contraction
    • calcium is used to initating muscle contraction
    • calcium binds to the troponin tropomyosin complex and pulls it away from the actin receptor sites