Pre med terms 81-130.txt

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jared0811
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116111
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Pre med terms 81-130.txt
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2011-11-11 12:34:39
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premed biology terms
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Pre Med Terms 81-130
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  1. ´╗┐Eukaryotic cell
    A type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles, present in protists, plants, fungi, and animals; also called eukaryote.
  2. Cytoplasm
    jelly-like portion of the cell, exclusive of the nucleus and bounded by the plasma.
  3. Plasma membrane
    The fluid boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier, thereby regulating the cell's chemical composition.
  4. Cell nucleus
    The chromosone-containing organelle of a eukaryotic cell.
  5. Nucleolus
    a specialized structure in the nucleus, formed from various chromosomes and active in the sysnthesis of ribosomes.
  6. Ribosome
    sites of protein synthesis in all types of cells.
  7. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
    internal membrane system found in eukaryotic cells covered with ribosomes; place where proteins bound for the cell membrane are assembled.
  8. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    site of lipid synthesis and detoxification in eukaryotic cells.
  9. Golgi apparatus
    an organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of flat membranous sacs that modify, store, and route products of the endoplasmic reticulum.
  10. Lysosomes
    A membrane enclosed sac of digestive enzymes found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.
  11. Phagocytosis
    A type of endocytosis involving large, particulate substances, accomplished mainly by macrophanges, neutrophils, and dendritic.
  12. Pinocytosis
    A type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved solutes.
  13. Vacuole
    A cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.
  14. Mitochondria
    cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use.
  15. Chloroplast
    organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy.
  16. Cytoskeleton
    network of protein filaments in a eukaryotic cell that gives the cell its shape and internal organization and is involved in movement
  17. Centrioles
    structure in an animal cell that helps to organize cell division.
  18. Flagella
    structure used by protists for movement; produces movement in a wavelike motion
  19. Cilia
    short hairlike projection that produces movement
  20. Cell wall
    strong, supporting layer around the cell membrane
  21. Selectively permeable
    A property of biological membranes that allows some substances to cross more easily than others.
  22. Integral proteins
    Typically a transmembrane protein with hydrophobic regions that completely spans the hydrophobic interior of the membrane.
  23. Peripheral proteins
    A protein appendage loosely bound to the surface of a membrane and not embedded in the lipid layer.
  24. Transport proteins
    A transmembrane protein that helps a certain substance or class of closely related substances to cross the membrane.
  25. Diffusion
    The spontaneous tendency of a substance to move down its concentration gradient from a more concentrated to a less concentrated areas.
  26. Passive transport
    The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane.
  27. Osmosis
    The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
  28. Hypertonic solution
    the solution with a greater solute concentration.
  29. Hypotonic solution
    the solution with a lower solute concentration.
  30. Isotonic solution
    the same solute concentration as another solution.
  31. Active Transport
    The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration or electrochemical gradient with the help of energy input and specific transport proteins.
  32. Exocytosis
    The cellular secretion of macromolecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane.
  33. Endocytosis
    The cellular uptake of macromolecules and particulate substances by localized regions of the plasma membrane that surround the substance and pinch off to form an intercellular vesicle.
  34. Exergonic reaction
    A spontaneous chemical reaction, in which there is a net release of free energy.
  35. Endergonic reaction
    A non-spontaneous chemical reaction, in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings.
  36. Phosphorylation
    the addition of a phosphate group to a melecule
  37. Activation energy
    The amount of energy that reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction will start; also called free energy activation.
  38. Substrate
    The reactant on which an enzyme works.
  39. Active site
    The specific portion of an enzyme that attaches to the substrate by means of weak chemical bonds.
  40. Fermentation
    A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid.
  41. Cellular Respiration
    The most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway for the production of ATP, in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel.
  42. Cristae
    An infolding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
  43. Mitochondrial Matrix
    The compartment of the mitochondrion enclosed by the inner membrane and containing enzymes and substrates for the Krebs cycle.
  44. Redox Reaction
    A chemical reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; also called oxidation-reduction reaction.
  45. Electron transport chain
    A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
  46. Glycolysis
    The splitting of glucose into pyruvate. The one metabolic pathway that occurs in all living cells, serving as the starting point for fermentation or aerobic respiration.
  47. Citric acid cycle
    A chemical cycle involving eight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules to carbon dioxide; occurs within the mitochondrion; the second major stage in cellular respiration.
  48. Aerobic
    Containing oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that requires oxygen.
  49. Anaerobic
    Lacking oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that lacks oxygen and may be poisened by it.
  50. Alcohol Fermentation
    The conversion of pyruvate to carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol.

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