Pre med terms 81-130.txt
Card Set Information
Pre med terms 81-130.txt
premed biology terms
Pre Med Terms 81-130
A type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles, present in protists, plants, fungi, and animals; also called eukaryote.
jelly-like portion of the cell, exclusive of the nucleus and bounded by the plasma.
The fluid boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier, thereby regulating the cell's chemical composition.
The chromosone-containing organelle of a eukaryotic cell.
a specialized structure in the nucleus, formed from various chromosomes and active in the sysnthesis of ribosomes.
sites of protein synthesis in all types of cells.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
internal membrane system found in eukaryotic cells covered with ribosomes; place where proteins bound for the cell membrane are assembled.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
site of lipid synthesis and detoxification in eukaryotic cells.
an organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of flat membranous sacs that modify, store, and route products of the endoplasmic reticulum.
A membrane enclosed sac of digestive enzymes found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.
A type of endocytosis involving large, particulate substances, accomplished mainly by macrophanges, neutrophils, and dendritic.
A type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved solutes.
A cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.
cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use.
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy.
network of protein filaments in a eukaryotic cell that gives the cell its shape and internal organization and is involved in movement
structure in an animal cell that helps to organize cell division.
structure used by protists for movement; produces movement in a wavelike motion
short hairlike projection that produces movement
strong, supporting layer around the cell membrane
A property of biological membranes that allows some substances to cross more easily than others.
Typically a transmembrane protein with hydrophobic regions that completely spans the hydrophobic interior of the membrane.
A protein appendage loosely bound to the surface of a membrane and not embedded in the lipid layer.
A transmembrane protein that helps a certain substance or class of closely related substances to cross the membrane.
The spontaneous tendency of a substance to move down its concentration gradient from a more concentrated to a less concentrated areas.
The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane.
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
the solution with a greater solute concentration.
the solution with a lower solute concentration.
the same solute concentration as another solution.
The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration or electrochemical gradient with the help of energy input and specific transport proteins.
The cellular secretion of macromolecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane.
The cellular uptake of macromolecules and particulate substances by localized regions of the plasma membrane that surround the substance and pinch off to form an intercellular vesicle.
A spontaneous chemical reaction, in which there is a net release of free energy.
A non-spontaneous chemical reaction, in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings.
the addition of a phosphate group to a melecule
The amount of energy that reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction will start; also called free energy activation.
The reactant on which an enzyme works.
The specific portion of an enzyme that attaches to the substrate by means of weak chemical bonds.
A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid.
The most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway for the production of ATP, in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel.
An infolding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
The compartment of the mitochondrion enclosed by the inner membrane and containing enzymes and substrates for the Krebs cycle.
A chemical reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; also called oxidation-reduction reaction.
Electron transport chain
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
The splitting of glucose into pyruvate. The one metabolic pathway that occurs in all living cells, serving as the starting point for fermentation or aerobic respiration.
Citric acid cycle
A chemical cycle involving eight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules to carbon dioxide; occurs within the mitochondrion; the second major stage in cellular respiration.
Containing oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that requires oxygen.
Lacking oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that lacks oxygen and may be poisened by it.
The conversion of pyruvate to carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol.