Anti-Infective Agents

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Anti-Infective Agents
2011-11-11 15:02:12
PCN cephalasporins

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  1. Medication kills bacteria
  2. Drugs that slow growth of microorganisms
  3. Deficiency of G6PD don't give what and why
    Sulfonimides or chloramphenicol
  4. Drugs to treat TB
    • Rifampin
    • Isoniazid
    • Ethambutol
  5. Process of growing the pathogen and identifying the most effective antibiotic
    Culture and sensitivity (C&S) testing
  6. Antagonism phenomenon
    combining two different antibiotics decreases efficacy of both drugs. Always better to treat with one drug
  7. Why PCN don't affect human cells
    Human cells don't have cell walls. Most bacteria has PCN binding proteins on their walls, which in turn lets water in and they die.
  8. Most common bacteria affected by PCN
    gram positive (such as strep and staph)
  9. Enzyme that bacteria secretes to reisist PCN
    penicilinase (beta-lactamase) splits the beta-lactam ring
  10. Other antibiotics that contain beta-lactam ring
  11. nafcillin (Nafcin)
    Penicillinase resisitant penicillins
  12. meticillin (Staphcillin)
    Penicillinase resisitant penicillins
  13. PCN adverse effects
    rash, pruritus, diarrhea, nausea, fever, drowsiness, anaphylaxis (cir colapse, angioedema, cardio arrest, nephrotoxicity)
  14. amoxicillin
    Broad spectrum (amino pcn) pcn
  15. amoxicillin-clavulanate (Augmentin)
    broad spectrum (amino PCN) PCN
  16. ampicillin
    broad spectrum (amino PCN) PCN
  17. ampicillin-sulbactam (Unasyn)
    broad spectrum (amino PCN) PCN
  18. piperacillin sodium (Piperacil)
    Extended-Sprectrum PNC
  19. piperacillin-tazobactam (Zosyn)
    Extended-Sprectrum PNC
  20. ticarcillin-clavulantae (Timentin)
    Extended-Sprectrum PNC
  21. Extended-sprectrum penicillins effective against:
    Very wide spectrum of microbial species. Including Pseudomonas, Enterbacter, Klebsiella and Bacteroides fragillis
  22. Action of Beta-lactamase inhibitors
    When combined with penicillin, these agents protect the penicillin molecule from destruction, extending it's spectrum of activity. These are the extended spectrum penicillins, plus Augmentin
  23. Which penicillin group is effective against e-coli, h-influenzae, shigella dyseneriae, proteaus mirabilis and salmonella
    Broad sprectrum
  24. What PCN group is used to tx S. aureus and other gram positive cocci, bone and soft tissue infections, NOT effective in gram negative
    Peniciliianse-Resisitant Penicillins (Antistaphylococcal Penicillins)

    nafcillin and methicillin
  25. Three organisms gram neg cannot tx with PCN
    E. coli, pseudomonas, salmonella
  26. SE/AE of PCN
    diarrhea, GI, serum sickness, exfoliative dermatitis, superinfections
  27. Serum sickness
    Lowered RBC, WBC or platelet counts
  28. 1st gen cephalosporins
    Just like PCN--to tx gram positive organisms ie. strep and staph, poor with gram -
  29. 2nd generation cephalosporins
    some gram-, and anaerobic like h. influenzae, gonorrhoeae, n. menigitidis, enterbacter
  30. 3rd generation cephalosporins
    add pseudomonas, serratia, acinetobacter, less effective on gram +
  31. 4th generation cephalosporins
    • same as 3rd with broader coverage against e. coli, klebsiella, proteus, some staph, and p. aeruginosa. Resistant to most beta-lactamase. poor gram+ and anerobe, but good gram -
    • cefapime (Maxipime)
  32. 5th generation cephalosporins
    ceftaroline (Teflaro) new IV for MRSA
  33. cefadroxil (Duricef), cefazoline sodium (Ancef), cephalexin (Keflex)
    1st generation cephalosporins
  34. cefaclor (Ceclor), cefotetan (Cefotan), cefprozil monohydrate (Cefzil)
    2nd generation cephalosporins
  35. cefdinir (Omnicef), ceftriaxone (Rocephin), cefotaxmine (Claforan)
    3rd generation cephalosporins
  36. Cephalosporins contraindicated in what pts
    those who have experienced severe reactions to PCN (cross hypersensitivity)
  37. SE/AV Cephalosporins
    skin rash (may be delayed), GI, kidney toxicity (early gen), fatigue, oral or vaginal candidiasis, psuedomembranous colitis, anaphylaxis