what is the Hunger-drive homeostatic process 3 components
1. lateral hypothalamus (LT=eat)
2. Ventromedial hypothalamus (VT= STOP)
3. Paraventricular nucleus ( cluster of cells in hypothalamus. Food preferences)
name the theories of hunger
describe the glucostatic theory
monitoring glucose levels, when those drop, it says eat, when they are back to normal, stop eating
describe lipostatic theory
longterm weight, hypothalamus monitoring size and number of fat cells in body, if you have more cells the body will urge to eat more, if you have less cells, you can eat less
describe fat cells
determined by genetics, metabolism, early feeding, average weight person = 30-40 billion
what is obesity
-not in the DSM
if 2 binges per week, for at least 6 months without compensatory behavior, may be diagnosed with eating disorder NOS
what is the operation definition
20% above ideal weight for women, 24% for men. may also use body mass index
what health risks are linked to obesity?
type 2 diabetes
when you have lower metabolic rates there are
greater number of fat cells
describe equate with a food addiction
tolerance, withdrawal, ingest more than intended, much time thinking about food and its consumption, overeat despite attempts or promises to cut back, overeat despite adverse consequences
voluntary self-starvation; goal is to be thin but motivation is intense fear of becoming fat/obese
Anorexia Nervose (AN)
what is the diagnostic criteria for Anorexia Nervosa?
refusal to maintain minimum body weight
intense fear of gaining weight or becoming obese
disturbance in body image (cognitive distortion)
in postmenarcheal females, ammenorrhea for at least 3 cycles
what are the 2 types of Anorexia Nervosa?
binge eating/purging type
describe the restricting type of AN
fasting only (starve, and when finally give in only eat something so small like 1 kernal of popcorn)
describe the binge eating/purging type of AN
fasting with occasional bingeing and purging (usually starves, but once in awhile gives in so binge, then purge)
what are the physiological symptoms of AN?
low bone density
lanugo (long silky hair on their bodies, bc losing body fat, which is insulation to bodies, so hair acts as insulation)
dry skin, brittle nails
hypotension; cardia arrhythmia
confused thinking (brain needs glucose, can get to point where they have delusions)
what are some psychological features of AN?
many OCD quailities
highly perfectionistic, intelligent
depressed, anxious, introverted
perceives little personal control
"thinness = happiness"
strange food- related behavior
20% mortality rate, highest among all psychiatric disorders; affects about 1% of women age 12-40 years. most deadly psychiatric disorder!
reverse anorexia in males; extremely muscular but perceive selves as underdeveloped. exercise fanatically, use steroids
hunger of an ox; gorge up to 60k calories in binge episode, then compensation by purging or fasting
Bulimia Nervosa (BN)
what is the diagnostic criteria for Bulimia Nervosa
recurrent episodes of binge eating
recurrent inappropriate compsensatory behavior
behaviors both occurr, on average 2+ times per week for 3 months
self-evaluation unduly influenced by body shape and weight
what are the two types of Bulimia Nervosa?
purging type: 75% use vomiting
non-purging type: after binge person might sleep "hibernate" for days at a time
what are binge episodes ?
2-40 per week (10 average); rarely longer than 2 hours, loss of control; triggered by stress, emotions, mood. hoard food/steal food. after binge, much guilt and self-blame so compensatory behaviors used for "purification"; extremely secretive
what are physiological symptoms of BN
cardiac problems (postassium loss); heart failure
esophageal ulcerations (internal bleeding)
decay of tooth enamel
speeded-up metabolism ( this why you dont actually recognize a person who purges, bc they can be fat, skinny or normal)