parasitology final exam

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parasitology final exam
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flash cards for final exam parasitology
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  1. dientamoeba fragilis
    • intermittent Ds,
    • shedding
    • no cyst
    • fragmented karyosome
    • microscopy fixed smears
    • PCR gold std
  2. entamoeba histolytica
    • poor sanitation
    • gay community
    • trophs invade gut
    • bowel bleeding
    • diagnosed trophs stool
    • asymptomatic
    • bloody Ds
    • PCR differentiate dispar
  3. leishmania
    • sandflies
    • multiply in gut
    • PCR for speciation, gold std
  4. cutaneous leishmania
    • old world- major, tropica
    • - skin ulcer, scars
    • americana- braziliensis, mexicana.
    • - localised, mucosutaneous, difuse
  5. visceral leishmaniasis
    • denovani, infantum, chagasi.
    • ferver
    • malaise
    • Ds
    • anaemia
    • hypergammaglobulinaemia
    • hepatospleenomegaly
  6. microsporidia
    • opportunistic
    • microscopy gold atd
    • not routine
    • flourescent stain
    • PCR- speciation
  7. tandem multiplex PCR
    • RT- multiplexed reaction pre amplify multiple targes, used as template for many PCRs, limited by competition
    • RM- separate steps for multiplexing and quantification, compeition avoided.
  8. maegleri fowleri
    • opportunistic, free living
    • fresh water
    • invade olfactory mucosa and cribiform plate
    • encephalitis (brain)
  9. acanthamoeba
    • opportunistic, free living
    • soil, airborne
    • ketatitis (eye), encephalitis, skin infection, lesion
    • contact lenses, poor hygiene.
  10. balamuthia mandrillaris
    • opportunisitc, free living
    • granulomatous, encephaliais, skin infections, fatality
    • problem diagnosis, recognition,
    • multiplex PCR
  11. water quality
    • sydney water act 1994
    • 5 year water quality management
    • australian drinking water guidelines
    • nsw health satisfaction
  12. how conduct water quality
    • prevent contamination movement
    • verification at taps
    • identify contaminants
    • assessing water at barriers
    • hazards classified on rating and impact
    • E. coli marker
  13. 1998 water crisis
    • cryptosporidium
    • giardia
    • after drought, moderate rain
    • boil water alert
    • no disease as non infectious, non virulent types
    • lab under stress
    • crypto worse case- cl resistant, small
    • viability assessment
    • crypto behaviour
  14. biofilms
    • highly structured
    • protection
    • high shear drives oocysts in, decreased detachment
    • attach easier to biofilm
  15. biosolids
    • from wastewater after treatment
    • used compost, agriculture
    • class A no path- ongoing tests
    • class b low pathogens- no ongoing tests
    • no illness associated
    • dontsurvive soil 30 days, temp, sun, competition,no moisture
  16. food borne diseases
    • diagnosis improvements
    • eatign changes- fresh, organic
    • globilisation
    • demand
    • traditions
    • overfishing- aquaculture
    • adventure travel
    • hunting
    • parasite free farming-animal welfare
  17. anisakiasis
    • fish, salmon
    • eggs, larvae in water ingested,
    • fish to fish in muscle
    • roundworms produce eggs- accidental hosts
    • abdominal pain, nausea.
  18. clonorchoriasis
    • crab, crayfish, fish
    • snails, free, fish, human, biliary duct
    • biliary duct obstruction, pain, nausea, Ds, eosinophilia, gallstones, cancer
  19. paragonimiasis
    • crabfish
    • eggs, snails, crustacean, humans lungs, swallow eggs
    • ds, cough, hepatospleenomegaly, eosinophilia, urticaria (skin),
    • resolves
  20. trichinellosis
    • pig, in muscle,adults muscle
    • asymptomatic
    • haemorrhages
    • rashes
    • eosinophilia
    • pneumonitis
  21. cysticercosis
    pigs, muscle, humans, scolex attaches intestine, if eggs ingested cysts develop in brain, tissue, eye, liver- various symptoms
  22. fascioliasis
    • egg faeces, snail, free swimming, encyst plants, human, adults biliary ducts
    • hepatomegaly, fever, Vs, Ds, eosinophilia, billiary obstruction
  23. toxoplasmosis
    • pork, beef, chicken, cats faeces, fruit
    • cysts develop
    • asymptomatic, congenital, encephalitis, IC
  24. cyclosporiasis
    • raspberries, basil, peas, lettuce
    • oocysts ingestd, reproduction, passed
  25. american trypanosomiasis
    • chagus disease-
    • fruits, berries, triatomine bug blood, infects cells, multiply in bug midgut.
    • eye inflammation, anaemia, weakness, heart failure
  26. drug market
    • cost
    • availability
    • distribution
    • side effects
    • efficacy
    • resistance
    • ADRs
    • administration
    • 12 drugs
    • discontinue research
  27. drug resistance
    survival or reduction in protection period
  28. drug resistance mechanisms
    • genetics
    • biology
    • host parasite relationship
    • lifecycle
  29. change in molecular target
    alternate pathway, targer alteration
  30. metabolism
    • converted to inactive
    • prodrug not activated
  31. dru distribution
    • decreased import
    • increased export
    • cross resistance
  32. amplification of target genes
    • overproduction oftarget
    • accumulation of matbolite antagonistic to drug
  33. active vs passive
    • induce antbody production, long, IgM, IgG booster
    • vs
    • antibodies from person/ animals immune
  34. conventional vaccine problems
    • quality
    • shelf life
    • non culturable
    • post vaccination incidents
  35. non replicative
    • killed or inactivated
    • less haxardous
    • short immunity
  36. replicative
    • live
    • long immunity
  37. new approaches
    • parasite subunit
    • biosynthesis of antigenic proteins
    • chemically defined antigens
    • DNA vaccines
    • genetically engineered live vaccines
  38. immunopotentiation
    • enhance immune response, intensity, duration.
    • response to non immunogenic substances
  39. adjuvants
    • antigen localisation and delivery
    • antigen presenting cells activated and recruited
  40. escape mechanisms
    • intracellular parasites
    • host mimicry
    • polyclonial activation
    • immunosuppression
    • antigenic diversity
    • parasite sequestration
    • cyst formation
  41. vaccine difficulty
    • escape mechanisms
    • developing countries with poor conditions
    • costs
    • restrictions on adjuvants
    • lack international commitment
    • undernourished and compromised immune system
  42. symptoms
    immune reponse to parasite
  43. parasite damages host
    • nutrient competition
    • destruction
    • mechanical blockage
  44. mararia pathology
    - paroxysm
    • hot, cold, sweat, rupture shizont, merozoite release and hemozoin wastes. hemozoin binds to innate immune cells increasing TNFa and IL1b
    • results in fever by affecting hypothalamus.
  45. malaria pathology
    - cerebral malaria
    • headache, confusion, coma, death
    • cytokines/proinflammatory molecules and mechanical obstruction from sticky RBCs.
  46. scistosomiasis
    • swimmers itch and dermatitis from skin penetration adn excretory product release, hypersensitivity
    • sends marophages and TH2 to infection.
    • katoyma fever response to antigens for eggs. --> liver fibrosis and hepatospleenomegaly
  47. successful parasite mechanisms
    • anatomical seclusion
    • antigenic variation
    • shedding/ replacement surface
    • immunosuppression
    • antiimune mechanisms
    • migration
    • absorb host proteins
    • molecular mimicry
    • enzyme secretion- prevent attachment
  48. helminths immune response
    • too large forphagocytosis
    • tegument coat not penetrated by complement
    • eosinophilia and IgE activated to expell parasite worm

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