Chapter 10 SEX

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  1. what is fragile X disorder
    boys get from mom, girls get from dad, # 1 retardation in boys
  2. what is turners X0
    girls get this, they do not mature
  3. what is Klinefelter's XXY disorer
    boys get this. they do not mature
  4. gonadal sex
    ovaries, testes
  5. what is hormonal sex
    • estrogen/progesterone (12wk of pregnancy)
    • androgens (6th wk of pregnancy)
  6. genital sex
    • clitoris/vagina/uterus;
    • penis/scrotum
  7. describe intersexed conditions
    • pseudohermaphroditism:
    • AGS child is born looking like other sex, or you cant tell which sex. Old way of dealing with it was by 1st birthday make them all girls. this is good for the "girls" but not those who feel like boys. Now they surgically do which ever seems appropriate
  8. what is Gender Identity disorder
    psychological dimension: normal appearing with no biological issues but they reject their genetic biology; male trapped in womans body, and woman trapped in mans
  9. what is homosexuality
    absolutely no evidence of psychological or gender identy disturbance
  10. what are some biological factors of sexual orientation
    • genetics
    • prenatal effects
    • interstitial nucleus
  11. describe human sexual response (masters and johnson)
    • 1. appetive/desire ( getting in the mood, thinking about it)
    • 2. arousal/excitement (heartrate up, bp up, with partner)
    • 3. plateau ( maximum level of sexual arousal)
    • 4. orgasm
    • 5. resolution (heartrate drop, bp drop)
  12. what are the differences between women and men (valois & Kammerman)
    • peak of sex drive: men 18-21 women 35-40
    • time in stages, including orgasm: men shorter, women longer
    • preferred stimuli: men visual, woman tactile
    • sexual fantasies: men and women = times/types
    • scritps: men adventure experiment more with sex, women roamce sex = love
  13. what are some sexual dysfuntions:
    • desire disorder
    • arousal disorders
    • orgasmic disorders
    • sexual pain
  14. describe desire disorder
    hypoactive, sexual aversion (not in the mood)
  15. describe arousal disorders
    • male erectile (#1 in males)
    • female sexual arousal
  16. describe orgasmic disorders
    • female orgasmic (#1 in females) cant achieve orgasm
    • male: premature ejaculation
  17. describe sexual pain disorders
    • vaginismus: painful childbird, or trauma, willing to have sex, but during sex causes uncontrollable spasms)
    • dyspareunia (men and women)
  18. what are the specifiers for sexual dysfunctions
    • primary: lifetime
    • secondary: just now happening
    • generalized: happens all the time
    • situational: only sometimes (or with someone)
  19. what are the medical/biological etiologies for sexual dysfunctions
    low hormonal levels, vascular flow
  20. what are the social/sociocultural etiologies for sexual dysfunctions
    relationship issues, cultural scripts
  21. what are the phychological etiologies for sexual dysfunctions
    • strict moral upbringing
    • performance anxiety
    • traumatic sexual experiences
  22. what is the muitmodal therapy for sexual dysfunctions
    • it is the most effective
    • includes: medical, educational, psychological, relationship and social components
  23. what are the statistics of Gender Identity disorder?
    usual onset before 18, clinical depression and suicidal ideation often reported due to sex-role conflicts; found in all cultures
  24. what are some examples of Gender Identity disorder
    • 1. transsexualism
    • 2. gynemimesis
  25. what is transsexualism
    strong, pervasive and persistent cross-gender identification, cross-dressing without sexual excitement; seek sexual reassignment procedures
  26. what is gynemimesis
    (female looking) childhood verson of transsexualism; child finds pleasure in behaving and dressing as the other sex. In most cases, behaviors and desires disappear or are repressed by puberty
  27. what are the etiologies and treatments of Gender Identity Disorder
    very tentative since so few cases, limited research
  28. what are the 4 reasons some adovocate to remove Gender Identity Disorder from DSM-V
    • 1. poor reliability and validity or diagnostic criteria
    • 2. distress due to social pressures, not psychiatric pathology
    • 3. most effective (& virtually only) treatment is reparative
    • 4. little evidence of psychiatric pathology in GID children
  29. considered a deviation because legality or morality is condemned in given society. strong OCD component, much difficulty achieving mature relationships; emotional immaturity
  30. what are the statistics of paraphilias
    very difficult to dtermine; far more common among younger men. estimate that 50% of cases, has 3-4 praphilias; very high recidvism. Very difficult to treat.
  31. what are the three categories of paraphilias
    • 1. nonhuman objects
    • 2. pain and suffering
    • 3. non-consenting others
  32. what are the 2 types of nonhuman objects of paraphilias
    • fetishism
    • transvestic fetishism
  33. describe fetishism
    aroused by contact with certain inanimate object; onset usually adolescence; very rare in women (black boots)
  34. describe transvestic fetishism
    in heterosexual males, arousal contingent on cross-dressing; onset usually puberty
  35. what are the two types of pain and suffering of paraphilias
    • sexual sadism
    • sexual masochism
  36. describe sexual sadism
    arousal through inflicting pain, suffering, humiliation; violence escalates. Childhood onset
  37. describe sexual masochism
    arousal through receiving pain, suffering, humiliation; preferred levels of pain increase. onset about 15 for males, 22 for females
  38. what is hyoxyphilia (autoerotic asphyxia)
    sexual arousal through self-induced oxygen depriavtion
  39. what are the 4 types of non-consenting others of paraphilias
    • 1. exhibitionism
    • 2. voyeurism
    • 3. Frotteurism
    • 4. pedophilia
  40. describe exhibitionism
    expose genitals in sexually neutral situations and aroused by reactions. Immature, impulsive young males, no prior planning
  41. describe voyeurism
    watches unsuspecting others undress or have sex: danger of being caught increases excitement, often masturbates. (peeping toms). onset usually by 15
  42. describe frotteurism
    • -Rub and Run
    • touching or rubbing against stranger in public setting; while rubbing, fantasizes about relations with victim, may ejaculate. onset by adolescence
  43. describe pedophilia
    • prepubescent children (usually 13 and younger); perpetrator at least 16 or older and at least 5 years older than victim. more are in late 20s/30s.
    • (serial pedophiliacs) perp. usually establishes trusting relationship with victims; then uses bribes or threats to continue victim's compliance
  44. what is the profile for a paraphiliac
    impulsiveness, emotionally immaturity, strong discomfort in social situations, passive-dependent or passive aggressive personalities.
  45. what are some NOS paraphilias
    • zoophilia- contact with animals
    • klismaphilia- receiving enemas
    • coprophilia- feces
    • urophilia-urine
    • necrophilia-contact with corpes
    • telephone scatalogia- obscene phone calls
  46. what are the biological etiologies for paraphilias
    • non theory has strong evidence;
    • some suggest lower brain volume
  47. what are the social/sociocultural etiologies for paraphilias
    societal norms link male role with sexual power/deviant sexual behavior but some are overwhelmed or intimated by these standards; attachment problems
  48. what are the psychodynamic etiologies for paraphilias
    • unconscious sexual conflict so deviant behavior serves both as substitute "lobe" and helps avoid dealing with conflict examples
    • exhibitionism- provides "proof" was not castrated
    • voyeurism- observe first love object(mom) perform ultimate act of betrayal
    • Masoschism- deserve punishment for incestuous urges
    • Sadism- ultimate proof that penis is powerful
    • peophilia- fear of penis inadequacy( so choose younger partners or victims b/c they dont know any better)
  49. what are the behavioral etiologies for paraphilas
    • - classical condtioning: much support; associations formed between sexual arousal and certain objects or situations (eg. nude in leather boots)
    • - operant conditioning- primary gain via reduction of sexual tension, secondary gain from thrill or risk-taking
    • - social learning: imitative behavior (eg. porno) fail to learn social skills for healthy sexual relationship. many cases these pedophiles there is a lack of social skills thats why they turn to younger children)
  50. what are the treatment for paraphilias
    • very difficult; high recidivism rates perphaps because most seek to reduce paraphiliac behavior without addressing the positive reinforcement experienced from risk-taking behavior
    • examples: medications, surgical castration, aversion therapies, behavior modification, social skills, cognitive restructuring
  51. use of emotional threats to pressure partner inot providing sexual favors
    sexual coercion
  52. act of voilence during which non-consenting person forced into some unwanted sexual activity. victims suffer rape truama syndrome.
  53. rape trauma syndrome
    same types of symptoms of PTSD but a huge degree of self-blame
  54. statistics of rape
    • in US someone is raped every 5 mins.
    • 90% are never reported
    • 87% committed by someone they knew
    • very low conviction rate (16%) among those reported
    • 98% of reported cases involve female victim (15-24)
  55. describe Lerner & Simmons Just world hypothesis
    • may account for low reporting.conviction rates: as long as you behave and do the right thing nothing bad is suppose to happen to you. and when something does happen people tend to blame the victim.
    • what was she thinking dressing like that, and going out alone, drinking so much etc. she was asking for it. so we think if i dont dress or act like "she" did then it wont happen to me.
    • because of this theory Jury and Judges tend to also beleive like this, this may result in the low conviction rates.
  56. describe the average perpetrator of rape
    mostly younger males involved in relationships; have immature social skills. most (85%) do not have orgasm during rape
  57. what are the 3 motives for rape
    • power: 50% of rapes want to exert dominance and control. I just took you to dinner, you owe me
    • anger: 45% of rapes. issue with a type of woman. failed relationship (got dumped by girl), first girlfriend, or mother. so he picked a woman who looked like her to take it out on, he feels as if he is hurting mother, ex instead of this girl
    • sadistic: 5% of rape cases. enjoys torturing, raping then killing victims
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Chapter 10 SEX
2011-11-12 06:15:32
Sexual Disorders

A.Psych. sexual disorders chapter 10
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