Exam 3

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  1. anuria
    24-hour urine output is less than 50mL; synonyms are complete kidney shutdown or renal failure
  2. dysuria
    painful or diffiuclt urination
  3. frequency
    increased incidence of voiding
  4. glycosuria
    presence of sugar in the urine
  5. nocturia
    awakening at night to urinate
  6. oliguria
    scanty or greatly diminished amount of urine voided in a give time; 24-hour urine output is less than 400 mL
  7. polyuria
    excessive output of urine (diuresis)
  8. proteinuria
    protein in the urine; indication of kidney disease
  9. pyuria
    pus in the urine; urine appears cloudy
  10. suppression
    stoppage of urine production; normally the adult kidneys produce urine continuously at the rate of 60 to 120 mL/h
  11. urgency
    strong desire to void
  12. urinary incontinence
    involuntary loss of urine
  13. Act of Micturition
    • -Process of emptying the bladder
    • - detrusor muscle contracts, internal sphincter relaxes, urine enters posterior urethra
    • -muscles of perineum & external sphincter relax
    • -muscle of abdominal wall contracts slightly
    • -diaphragm lowers, micturition occurs
  14. Nitrofurantoin (Macrodantin)
    • -Inhibits bacterial enzymes & metabolism
    • -Side effects/adverse reactions; dizziness, HA, drowsiness, rust-colored/brown urine, rash, pruritus, GI distress
    • -Interventions; take with food to decrease GI distress, avoid antacids, do not crush or open capsules, shake liquid suspension well, rinse mouth after taking drug, increase fluid intake, consume cranberry juice, plums, proteins, vitamin C
  15. NREM
    • Stage 1:
    • 5% of sleep (lasts only minutes)
    • between awake & sleep
    • involuntary muscle jerking
    • Stage 2:
    • 50-55% of sleep
    • light sleep
    • Stage 3:
    • 10% of sleep
    • arousal becomes increasingly difficult
    • Stage 4: delta sleep
    • 10% of sleep
    • deep-sleep
    • everything decreases (brain waves, P, R, BP, T)
    • muscles are relaxed
    • help feel refreshed, gives you energy
    • 20-25% of sleep
    • everything increases (T, P, R, BR, gastric secretions, metabolism)
    • large muscle immobility
  17. Adverse Effects of Sleep Meds
    • Hangover
    • residual drowsiness from medication.
    • Dependence
    • "need of meds" to prevent withdrawal syndrome.
    • Tolerance
    • take more drugs (dose) to take effect.
    • Withdrawal Symptoms
    • sweat, tremors, orthostatic HTN, hallucinations, anxiety, & seizure
    • REM rebound
    • lacking REM sleep
    • spends more time in REM sleep on successive nights
    • allows the total amount of REM sleep to remain fairy constant over time.
  18. Stages of Illness Behavior
    • 1. Experiencing symptoms; pain, rash, fever, bleeding, or cough.
    • 2. Assuming the sick role; gives up normal activities, focus on their symptoms & bodily functions.
    • 3. Assuming a dependent role; pt.'s decision to accept the Dx & follow the prescribed treatment.
    • 4. Achieving recovery & rehabilitation; person gives up the dependent role & resumes normal activities.
  19. Effects of Stress on Basic Human Needs
    • Physiologic
    • change in appetite, activity, or sleep
    • change in elimination patterns
    • increased P, R, BP
    • Safety/Security
    • feels threatened or nervous
    • uses ineffective coping mechanisms
    • is inattentive
    • Love/Belonging
    • withdrawn & isolated
    • blames others for own faults
    • demonstrates aggressive behaviors
    • becomes overly dependent on others
    • Self-Esteem
    • becomes a workaholic
    • exhibits attention-seeking behaviors
    • Self-Actualization
    • refuses to accept reality
    • centers on own problems
    • demonstrates lack of control
  20. Adaptation to Acute & Chronic Illness
    • General tasks
    • Ex: maintaing self-esteem & personal relationships (situational stress)
    • Illness-related tasks
    • Ex: handling pain & disability (loss of independence & control)
  21. Types of Stressors: Physiologic
    • Physiologic
    • chemical agents (ex. drugs, poison)
    • physical agents (ex. heat, cold, trauma)
    • infectious agents (ex. viruses, bacteria)
    • nutritional imbalances
    • hypoxia
    • genetic or immune disorders
  22. Types of Stressors: Psychosocial
    • Psychosocial
    • includes real & perceived threats
    • accidents
    • stressful or traumatic experiences of family members and friends.
    • horrors of history (ex. Nazi concentration camps, 9/11)
    • fear of aggression or mutilation (muggings, rape, murder)
    • evetns of history that are brought into our homes through TV (wars, earthquakes, violence in schools)
    • rapid changes in our world & the way we live (economic & political structures & rapid advances in technology)
  23. Health-Illness Continuum Model
    • measures a person's level of health on a graduated scale.
    • views health as a constantly changing state with high-level wellness & death on opposite sides of a continuum.
    • illustrates the dynamic (ever-changing) state of health.
  24. *Agent-Host-Environment Model (Leavell & Clark)
    • risk factors that must be examined!
    • agent & stressor must be present to occur.
    • examines the causes of disease in an individual.
    • host reaction is influenced by; family history, age, & health habits.
    • environment includes; physical, social, biologic, & cultural factors.
  25. Health Promotion Model (Pender)
    • illustrates how people react to their environment as they pursue health.
    • incorporates individual characteristics & experiences & behavior-specific knowledge & beliefs, to motivate health-promoting behavior (ex. "I want to give up fast food, so I can loose weight.")
  26. *Health-Belief Model (Rosenstock)
    • concerned with what people believe to be true about their health.
    • Perceived susceptibility to a disease: belief that one either will or will not contract a disease.
    • Perceived seriousness of a disease: concerns the perception of the threat to health posed by the disease & its effect on the person's lifestyle.
    • Perceived benefits of action: how effective the individual believes measures will be in preventing illness.
  27. Normal WBC count
    5,000 - 10,000/mm3
  28. Antibody-mediated immunity
    • very specific & delayed
    • humoral immunity (Pertaining to elements in the blood or other body fluids).
    • defense against antigens & pathogenic organisms in body fluids
    • B-lymphocytes (B cells makes plasma cells, plasma cells make antibodies).
  29. Cell-mediated immunity
    • happens right away - STAT & non-specific
    • cellular immunity
    • defense against abnormal cells & pathogens inside living cells.
    • T-lymphocytes
  30. Inflammatory Stages
    • 1. initial vasoconstriction
    • 2. vasodilatation-redness & warmth of tissues
    • 3. increased nutrients to area
    • 4. increased permeability, blood plasma leaks into interstitial space (swelling)
    • 5. fibrinogen clots - wall off & keep infection local
    • 6. attraction of neutrophils
    • 7. regeneration or scar tissue
  31. Inflammatory Response (Police)
    • early response, walling off
    • cell-mediated (T lymphocytes - abnormal cells)
    • non-specific defense mechanisms
  32. Immune Response (SWAT team)
    • late response, most effective
    • Antigen-antibody (B lymphocytes - organisms in body fluids)
    • specific defense mechanisms
Card Set:
Exam 3
2011-11-14 04:15:54
NUR 114

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