Exam 3 Part 4 RESP 132.txt
Card Set Information
Exam 3 Part 4 RESP 132.txt
The fundamental difference between newborn and adult pulmonary testing is?
There are three volumes that can be easily measure with out patient cooperation:
FRC, thoracic gas volume (TGV) and crying vital capacity (CVC).
The range of PFT in infants varries. These vaules must be compaired against a standard unit. The three ways to get a standard unit is:
body weight (kg), body length (cm), or body surface area (ml/cm2)
FRC is measured by two methods:
Closed system helium dilution and open system nitrogen washout
This requires the use of a plethsmograph and measures all of the gas in the thoracic cavity whether it is communicating with the airway or not,
By compairing the TGV with FRC, the clinitian can determine the presence of?
trapped air in the thorax
is the measurement of tidal volume while the infant is crying. is useful in following infants who have lung diseases that cause changes in FRC and is difficult to measure.
A method of measuring distribution of ventilation is available using a ?
nitrogen washout curve
This divides the lung into fast, intermediate, and slow ventilating areas based on calulations from expired nitrogen concentrations obtained during a nitogen washout.
Pulmonary clearance Delay (PCD)
Most imprtant clinical lung volume measurement.
When FRC is high, the compliance is _____, resistance is _____, and PaCO2 is ______?
lower, higher, elevated
When FRC is low, the compliance is ____, resistance is ____, and PaCO2 is ______?
very low, very high, and decreased (PaCO2 is increased)
is a disease in which the FRC is increased.
Meconium aspiration syndrome
is a measuremtn of the distensibilty of the lung. Calc. by dividing change in volume by change in pressure and requires measurement of tidal volume and transpulmonary pressure.
Most nurseries measure tidal volume by?
is the difference between airway pressure and pleural pressure. Approx. by measuring airway and esophageal pressure in intubated infants and esophageal pressure in nonintubated infants.
is a measure of the inhibition of gas flow through airways. Calc. by dividing change in transpulmonary pressure by change in flow.
Chest radiographs should be obtained in infants with evidence of?
acute unexplained repiratory problems.
The two classic newborn lung diseases are?
RDS and MAS
is a disease if inadequate surfactant production. immature alveoli have increased surface tension and collapse.
is primarily an airway disease. Stressed mature fetus passes meconium into the amniotic fluid and the with gasping respirations inhales the meconium laden amniotic fluid into its lungs
Ia a disease that has diagnostic radiographs. The aniotic fluid in the lung is incompletely resorbed at the time of delivery.
Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTNB)
Infants with obstructed airways still have what going on?
chest wall motion.
Until the age of ____, it is important to include the birth history as part of the evaluation of these patients.
The historian assessing the patient must begin to include a review of systems at the age of?
The historian inquiring about the pulmonary symptoms in an older infant or chile is limited to?
signs that are visable or audible to the parent.
Should be remembered that ______ and _____ do not occur in children.
hemoptusis and sputum expectoration
is a common complaint in infants and children.
These are major causes for hospitalization for children. These can be caused by pneumonia or pulmonary disease
Vomiting and diarrhea
an infant or child who does not maintain growth appropriate for developmental age should be investigated for an underlying?
Chronic pulmonary disease.
Two major respiratory disease in the young child are?
Croup and epiglottitis
is a viral disease affecting the trachea and small airways.
is usually a bacterial disease that causes significant edema and inflammation of the epiglottis. Drooling, dysphasia, and respiratory disress.
is an increassingly prevalent disease in children of all ages beyond infancy. chronic airway disease that is caused by airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness to irratants.
More than 50% of patients requiring the services of cardiopulmonary prefessionals are aged?
65 and up
To conserve the patient's energy?
Organize your assessment
The connection of aging with chonic illness and death may lead to this. means discrimination against old people.
Cell- mediated immunity decreases with?
Immunuzations, although not as effective in th elderly, are still ______.
Gentics, enviromental pollutants, socioeconomic status, and nutrition have what kind of effect on the immune system in the elderly?
Some older patients will down play their symptoms, assuming the aches as part of?
is one of the body's first responces to infection or injury.
typical presentations of cough, fever, and purulent sputum production.
Pneumonia infiltrate may be obscured by pulmonary edema or may not be detecable on the chest film until _______ after the patient has been hydrated.
is the major source of chronic disability and the leading indication for hospitalization in adults over the age of 65.
About 50% of patients who die from MI are older than?
Dyspnea and lethargy may be presenting symptoms of?
What percentage of adults older than 60 have asthma?
What percent of adults older than 70 have asthma?
The diagnosis of asthma shoould be considered in older adults who?
what is vital to good patient care and cost effective disease management?
In patients older than 90 years usually have a temp of what?
In an inactive older adult, the pulse may decrease to?
Normal respirtatory rate in the elderly is?
While sleeping, ederly may present this type of breathing.
Central cyanosis results from a decreased concentration of O2 in arterial blood and may be a result of advanced?
Lung disease or CHF
In older adults there are two manifistations of cyanosis that may be noted.
Small vessel Syndrome and Raynaud's phenomenon
This can be life threatening and should not be disregarded?
tthe abnormal enlargement of the distal phalanges, most noted easily in the finger, and is not age related. Is a sign of COPD and othe lung diseases.