Lifecycle Nutrition 3.1

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Lifecycle Nutrition 3.1
2011-11-14 14:09:21
Lifecycle Nutrition

Section 3.1 in Applications and Case Studies of Clinical Nutrition
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  1. T/F: Breastfeeding does not promote rapid weight loss, but all breastfeeding women do lose weight
  2. Breast milk best meets the nutrient needs of infants. Explain why.
    The nutrient content of breast milk is well adjusted to meet the specific nutritional needs of infants exclusively up to 4–6 months of age

    Vitamin D is the the exception because the content is low and a supplement may be needed.
  3. What are the physiologic effects of each hormone?
    Prolactin: Inhibits ovulation and stimulates milk production by the breasts

    Oxytocin: Promotes uterine contraction, stimulates milk ejection from the nipples, and minimizes maternal postpartum blood loss
  4. What is foremilk?
    Milk that is low in fat and high in nutrients that is released early in the nursing session.
  5. What is hindmilk?
    High in fat, released later in a nursing session, helps infant meet energy needs
  6. What is the draught reflex?
    Moves hindmilk towards the nipple after the foremilk has been drawn off
  7. What is the letdown relex?
    Stimulated milk to be released or ejected from the breast when, stimulated when the infant is suckling the nipple
  8. Does the CHO content of breast milk change depending on the mothers diet?
  9. What is the main CHO of breast milk?
  10. Why is Lactose as the main CHO of breast milk an advantage for infants?
    Lactose is easily digested and facilitates Ca absorption.
  11. Why do oligosaccharides, a type of CHO found in breast milk, have a protective role?
    Reduce the binding of pathogenic bacteria and toxins in the intestine of the infant.
  12. What are bifidus factors?
    • Nitrogen-containting CHO
    • Microbial growth factos
  13. Why are bifidus factos an advantage to breastfed infants?
    • Growth of harmless or good bacteria
    • Good Bacteria: Lactobacillus bifidus in the intestine

    Reduces the growth of pathogenic bacteria protecting infants from intestinal infections.

    Stimulates antibody production
  14. Another advantage to breastmilk is that is contains an enzyme to help older infants digest infant cereals. What is the enzyme?
  15. What is the percent of energy from protein in human milk and why is it an advantage?
    • 6%
    • Meets needs without overloading an immature kidney.
  16. Does the protein content of of breat milk change depending on the mother's diet?
  17. What is the main protein in breast milk?
  18. Why is consumption of whey protein an advatage for infants?
    Efficiently digested and absorbed by the immature GI tract of young infants.

    Contains all essential amino acids

    Rich in sulfur-containing amino acids such as methionine and cysteine.
  19. What is the main immunoglobulin found in breast milk?
    Secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA)
  20. How does (IgA) help reduce intestional infections in infants?
    • Resistant to digestion
    • Binds to harmful bacteria
  21. What is the % energy from fat in breast milk and why is an advantage for infants?
    • 55%
    • Meeting energy needs in infants in a small amount
  22. Does the lipid content on breast milk change depending on the mothers diet?
    • Yes
    • Diet rich in ployunsaturated fats reflects high levels in of PUFA in breast milk
  23. What is the main lipid in breast milk and why is it an advantage for infants?
    • Triglycerides (with palmitic acid in second position)
    • After the hydrolysis of lipases they are more readily absorbed
  24. What components of breast milk aids in the digestion lipids it contains?
    Acid-resistant lipase enzyme
  25. What other lipid components are found in breast milk?
    • DHA
    • Trans Fatty Acid
    • Cholesterol
  26. Which lipid component is not added to commercial infant formula?
  27. What does isosmotic mean and why is it an advantage of breast milk?
    • Same ion concentration as mother's plasma
    • Meets needs without having to consume other food
    • Does not overload kidneys
  28. Do you need to give extra water to your young infant when he or she is hot is you are exclusively breastfeeding?
    • NO
    • Breastmilk meets the needs but mother should increase fluid intake
  29. What causes the growth or mammary glands in pregnant women?
    • Estrogen
    • progesterone
  30. What is the first milk secreted by the mother's breasts, before the onset of true lactation? How long does it last? It is especially rich in? What does it protect against?
    • colostrum
    • 3 days
    • lactoferrin
    • protects against infections in which the mother has immunity.
  31. Colostrum contains more of what micro and macronutrients than mature breast milk? And acts as a natural what?
    • proteins
    • immunoglobulins
    • fat-souluble vitamins
    • Na
    • K
    • chloride

  32. In breast milk, what is the role of lysozyme, lactoferrin, and intestional growth factor in breast milk?
    • Lysozyme-Inhibits gastrointestinal bacterial growth by breaking down bacterial cell walls.
    • Lactoferrin-iron-binding protein, increases iron bioavailability for absorption.
    • IGF-increases the intestional epidermal cell growth and increases its resistance to infection.
  33. Breast milk has a higher proportion for energy from ________ than what is recommended for adults.
    a) fat
  34. Since the milk of mother contains only low amounts of ______, the reccomendation for adequate intake of the micronutrient is the same for all breastfeeding or nonbreastfeeding women.
    Vit. D
  35. T/F:What brestfeeding mothers drink alcohol, the milk consumption of their infants is lower
    T/F - Alcohol transfers to the infant and they cant metabolize alcohol
  36. Since HIV can be transmitted by breast milk, HIV-infected mothers who have access to proper infant formula should not be breastfeed their infants
  37. Cigarette smoking reduces the amount of milk produced by breast feeding mothers
  38. The quanity of water mothers drink daily does not infulence the amount of breast milk they generate
    T/F: The idea that excess amoutns can supress generation
  39. Mother with large breasts are more successful at breastfeeding their infants than mothers with small breasts.
  40. Exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 mos. of age can help reduce the incidence of obesity in the offspring.
  41. Regular or intense physical activity reduces milk porduction in lactatin women
  42. What is the daily energy cost of breastfeeding?
    • 500kcal/day (first 6 mos.)
    • 400kcal/day (after that)
  43. What are the daily energy needs of breastfeeding mothers?
    • Adult women EER + 330 kcal (first 6 mos)
    • Adult women EER +400 kcal (second 6 mos)
  44. What is the daily protein need of breastfeeding mothers? How does the compared to needs during pregnancy?
    • 1.1g protein/kg per day, or 25 additional grams
    • Same as 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy
  45. What is the daily CHO need for breastfeeding mothers? How does this compare to CHO need during pregnancy?
    • 210 g CHO per day
    • Higher than the need during pregnancy
  46. Which miconutrients do women have increased need for during lactation?
    • Vit. A, C, E
    • thiamin
    • riboflavin
    • niacin
    • B6 and B12
    • folate
    • penothenic acid
    • biotin
    • choline
    • chromium
    • copper
    • iodine
    • manganese
    • molybdenum
    • selenium
    • zinc.
  47. What are some common problems encountered by women when breastfeeding?
    • sore nipples
    • tender and engorged breasts
    • letdown failure
    • overactive letdown
    • plugged ducts
    • infection of the breast, such as a mastitis (a bacterial infection of the breast).
  48. What is the term for "the absence, temporary or permanent, of menstrual periods," which can be observed for example, in young women who are starving themselves for the sake of fashion?
  49. __________means painful mestration due to signs and symptoms such as lower abdominal cramps, headache, back pain, bloating, irritability, ect.
  50. Women who are breastfeeding need to have a)_____ servings of milk products per day to meet their calcium needs. One serving of milk products can be b)______ of milk, c) _____ of yogurt, or d)____ of natural cheddar or American Cheese.
    • a) 3
    • b) ?
    • c)8 oz
    • d)1 1/2
  51. What does it mean if the nurse tells you that this woman is G5P3?
    5 pregnancies, 3 deliveries (kids), 1 miscarriage,
  52. What are 5 possible causes of misscarriage?
    • 1) Serve defect of teh fetus
    • 2)Maternal Infection
    • 3)Structural abnormality of uterus
    • 4)endocrine or immuniological disturbance
    • 5)more than 500 mg of caffiene per day
  53. A term infant is born between the ____weeks of gestation.
    38th-42nd wk
  54. The developing organism, from 2-8 weeks of pregnancy is called the _____.
  55. Basic organ structures appear in which one of the following develpomental periods?
    D) Embryonic Period
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. You are explaining to a young woman in her early 20's the importance of optimal health and nutritional status before conception and she says: "Why is this so important? i will just have to be more careful about what I eat when I find out that I am pregnant!" What do you say to convice her? Give a detailed answer including examples.
    • Early days of pregnancy (before you even know) are when the organs are being formed.
    • Must have adequate stores to concieve
    • ???
  57. Why should all women who could become pregnany be taking folic acid?
    Pre-pregnancy nutrient stores are important to conception and pernatal nutrition
  58. Explain how intense physical activity can impact fertility in women
    • IN you dont have enough bidy fat you are unable to produce the hormones neede to ovulate
    • Extreme LBW will inhibit conception
  59. Explain how the following factors can reduce fertility in men.
    a) Alcohol Intake
    c)Enviromental Contaminants
    d)Steriod Abuse
    • a) decreases fertility in mean affect testicals
    • b) decrease sperm
    • c) Increase in Pb an Mercury decrease in sperm
    • d) shrinks testicals
  60. According to current recommendations for pregnancy, women with a healthy pre-pregnancy body weight should gain _____lbs during preganncy.
    25-35 lbs
  61. Which of the following have a higher adequate dietary intake recommendations for pregnancy than for lactation?
    A) Vitamin D and folate
    B) Fe and folate
    C) Ca and Fe
    D) Phosphorus and Vit. D
    E) Ca and Phosphoris
    B) Fe and folate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  62. Why should teen age girls not take accutane?
    Vit. A lead to birth defects... NO ears!
  63. Deficiencies in these micronutrients in mothers can lead to what problems in infants?
    a) Lack of Vit. D
    b) Thiamin
    e) Vit. C
    f) Vit. A
    g) Iron/folate/B12
    • a) Congenital rickets
    • b) Berberi, brain lesions
    • c) Goiter, cretinism
    • d) Spina difida
    • e) Scurvy, bleeding gums
    • f) Impaired vision, night blidness
    • g) Amenia
  64. To much of these nutreints leads to..
    a) Iodine
    b) Vit. D
    c) Vit. A
    • a) Goiter
    • b) hyperclampcia
    • c) small ears, malformation of the brain
  65. What are some tips for a healthy lifestyle and weight contril in the postpartum period.
    • 1. Variety of healthful foods
    • 2. Moderate physical activity
    • 3. No less than 1500 calories
    • 4. Avoid alcohol, smoking
    • 5. Careful amt of caffiene < 2 servings
    • 6. Portion sizes
    • 7. Measurable goals
    • 8. More people are 1-2 lns heavier after 1 year.
  66. Modifications in the food intake od mothers can influence the ______ content of the milk they produce.
    fatty, fat, fat!
  67. What presence of _____ in breast milk faciliates the digestion of milk fat by the infant.
  68. Colostrum contains more _______ per volume than mature breast milk