Acid-Base slide 71-91.txt

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Acid-Base slide 71-91.txt
2011-11-12 20:07:56
Quiz RESP 130

Cont from slide 71-91 W/O slides
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  1. What is Metabolic Acidosis?
    • -any process that lowers plasma [HCO3]
    • - reduced [HCO3] decreases blood pH (less amount of base relative to the amount of acid in the blood)
  2. What causes Metabolic Acidosis?
    • 1. fixed acid (nonvolatile) accumulation
    • 2. An excessive loss of HCO3 from the body
    • ***Analysis of the plasma electrolytes (anion gap) is helpful in differentiating the metabolic acidosis cause by a fixed acid gain from that caused by a loss of base.
  3. What is an Anion Gap?
    The law of electroneutrality states that the total number of positive (+) charges must equal the total number of negative (�) charges in the body fluids
  4. What are the normal values for cation plasma electrolytes?
    • Na+ = 140 mEq/L
    • K+ = 5 mEq/L
  5. What are the normal values for anion plasma electrolytes?
    • Cl- = 105 mEq/L
    • HCO3- = 24 mEq/L
  6. Which is normally more prevalent in plasma, cations or anions?
  7. What is the gap between cations and anions reffered to as?
    anion gap
  8. What is the normal range for Anion Gap?
    9 to 14 mEq/L
  9. What does an Anion Gap > 14 mEq/L indicate?
    metabolic acidosis in which fixed acids accumulate in the body
  10. What is the cause of Metabolic Acidosis?
    • hyperchloremic acidosis = increase Cl- (loss of HCO3-), but with normal anion gap
    • - e.g. diarrhea
  11. What are some symptoms of Metabolic Acidosis?
    • - increased Vt
    • - hypernea (increased depth of Vt)
    • - Kussmaul's respiration (very deep, gasping)
    • - lethargy to coma (severe type of Metabolic Acidosis)
  12. What are some possible corrections for Metabolic Acidosis?
    • - respiratory compensation to raise pH above 7.20
    • - treatment of underlying cause of acid gain or base lose
    • - intravenous infusion NaHCO3 may be indicated for severe metabolic acidosis
  13. What are the causes of Metabolic Alkalosis?
    • 1. Loss of fixed acids (nonvolatile)
    • 2. Excessive gain of buffer base
    • e.g. vomiting (causes loss of HCl), nasal gastric drainage, diuretics, state of hypochloremia, hypovolemia, and alot of bicarbonate present
  14. What is Primary active transport?
    a method in which sodium is reabsorbed out from the renal tubule cell into the blood
  15. What is Secondary active secretions of H+ and K+?
    done by the kidney allows for exchange of Na+ (reabsorption of Na+)
  16. When a patient has Metabolic Alkalosis that resulted from use of diuretics, low-salt diets, and gastric drainage, the term used is?