Nutrition Intro

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  1. Nutrient
    • Chemical substance found in foods, essential to life.
    • *to function properly, the body must be provided with nutrients*
  2. Six groups of Nutrients
    • Carbohydrates (CHO)
    • Fats (lipids)
    • Proteins
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
    • Water
  3. Carbohydrate (CHO) function
    Provide energy & heat
  4. Fats (lipids) function
    Provide energy & heat
  5. Proteins functions
    • Provide energy & heat
    • Build & repair body tissue
  6. Vitamins functions
    • Regulate body processes
    • Helps proteins build & repair
  7. Minerals functions
    • Regulate body processes
    • Helps proteins build & repair
  8. Water function
    Regulate body processes
  9. Nutrition definition
    The result of processes whereby the body takes in and uses food for growth, development, and maintenance of health.
  10. Major influences of what and why we eat
    • Hunger
    • Appetite
    • Social life
    • Body image
    • Culture & religion
    • Lifestyle
    • Economic status
  11. Nutritional status
    • Persons physical condition as determined by diet
    • ex. iron deficiency anemia, overweight, obese, underweight
  12. Characteristics of good nutrition
    • Alert expression
    • Shiny hair
    • Clear complexion
    • Pink gums
    • Firm abdomen
    • Erect posture
    • Good stamina
    • Normal elimination
  13. Characteristic of malnutrition
    • Dull, lifeless hair
    • Apathy
    • Blemished complexion
    • Red, puffy eyes
  14. Primary deficiencys
    Caused by inadequate dietary intake
  15. Secondary deficiencys
    Caused by something other than diet, such as disease.
  16. Malnutrition
    Caused by overnutrition (excessive energy or nutrient intake) or undernutrition (deficiency in energy or nutrient intake)
  17. Nutritional density
    • Nutrient value of food compared to the calories in food.
    • ex. low density = CHO, fat, low vit/min/protein
    • high density = high vit/min/protein
  18. Role of nurse in nutrition
    • Must have knowledge of sound nutrition
    • Modifies diet with the dietician
    • Feeds, assists with feeding, delegates feeding of patients
    • Answers patients' basic nutrition questions
    • Knows the relationship of foods and medications
    • Knows the characteristics of good and poor nutrition
  19. Vegetarian
    No red meat
  20. Lacto-ovo-vegetarian
    Eats milk/eggs
  21. Lacto-vegetarian
    Eat milk
  22. Vegan
    No animal products
  23. Carbohydrates
    • Nutrient, least expensive, most abundant
    • Made up of Carbon, Hydrogen & Oxygen (CHO)
  24. Carbohydrate functions
    • Provides energy & heat
    • Spares protein
    • Required for normal fat metabolism
    • Provides fiber, bulk for normal digestion
  25. Carbohydrate food sources
    • Plant: cereal grains, vegetables, fuits, nuts, sugar
    • Animal: milk
  26. Monosaccharides
    • simple sugars, easily digested
    • 1) glucose (dextrose): used in IV fluids, found in blood stream
    • 2) fructose: sweet, found in fruits, veggies, honey
    • 3) galactose: product of digestion of milk
  27. Disaccharides
    • double sugars, must be broken down into single sugars to be absorbed into the body
    • 1) sucrose: all forms of sugar, molasses, sugar beets
    • 2) maltose: intermediate break down form of starch
    • 3) lactose: milk sugar
  28. Polysaccharides
    • complex carbohydrates, must be broken down into double then single sugars to be absorbed into the body
    • 1) starch: grains, potatoes, winter squash, peas
    • 2) other polysaccharides: Glycogen (storage form of CHO in the body), Fiber or Roughage (cellulose a major source), Soluble vs Nonsoluble Fiber, Nonfood (pectin, Metamucil, Citracel)
  29. Benefits of fiber
    Decreases incidence of colon cancer, hemmorhoids, softens stool, decreases BG & cholesterol level.
  30. Too few CHO
    • Weight loss & fatigue
    • Ketoacidosis
    • Constipation
  31. Too many CHO
    • Obesity
    • Tooth decay
    • Flatulence, diarrhea
    • Decrease appetite for other nutrients
  32. Sugar substitutes
    • Aspartame (Nutrasweet)
    • Saccharin (Sweet & Low)
    • Sucralose (Splenda)
    • Stevia (Truvia)
    • Bulk sugar (Xylitol, Lactitol, Sorbitol)
    • Sugar alcohols
  33. Fats functions
    • Provide energy & heat
    • Spare protein
    • Carries essential fatty acids & fat soluble vitamins (Vit A,D,E,K)
    • Provides flavor & satiety
    • Protects organs & bones
    • Insulation from cold
  34. Fat food sources
    • Animal: meat, skin on poultry, milk (except skim), butter, cheeses, egg yolks, fatty fish (tuna/salmon)
    • Plant: cooking oils, margarine, nuts, avacados, coconut, chocolate
  35. Invisible fats
    Not able to be seen (cream, eggs, meat, pastries, nuts, milk)
  36. Visible fats
    Able to be seen, purchased & used as fats (butter, oil, margarine, lard)
Card Set
Nutrition Intro
Science Nutrition Intro Test
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