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2011-12-05 16:58:52
Brain Cranial Nerves

Brain and Cranial Nerves
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  1. Thick folds that provide the brain with 1/3 more surface area than flat are called:
  2. shallow grooves that separate components of the brain are called:
  3. deep grooves in the brain are called:
  4. a group of cell bodies in the brain are called:
  5. a group of axons in the brain that are white because they are composed of white matter are called:
  6. Describe the organization, structure, and fxn of the cranial meninges and spaces:
    • Organization
    • Dura mater
    • subdural space
    • arachnoid mater
    • subarachnoid space
    • pia mater

    • Structure
    • Dura: dense connective tissue, tough, durable, pressed against cranial bone
    • arachnoid: transparent membrane, spider like
    • pia: soft, loose connective tissue, closely follows the contours of the brain, highly vascularized

    fxn: protect the brain and provide structural framework for its arteries and veins
  7. Distinguish between gray and white matter and describe the organization of each in the brain:
    • Gray Matter
    • Color from cell bodies/dendrites
    • Cerebral cortex (40% brain mass)
    • outside layer
    • basal nuclei - cell bodies

    form cortex over ther cerebrum and cerebellum and deeper masses called nuclei surrouned by white matter

    • White matter
    • myelinated tracts (bundles of axons)
    • white due to fat in myelin

    deep to cortical matter in the brain, connect one part of the brain to another and spinal cord
  8. Identify the four ventricles of the brain:
    • right lateral ventricle
    • left lateral ventricle
    • 3rd ventricle
    • 4th ventricle
  9. The ________ connects the right and left lateral ventricles to the 3rd ventricle.
    interventricular foramen
  10. The 3rd and 4th ventricles are connected via the :
    cerebral aqueduct
  11. The exit of the 4th ventricles is thru the:
    lateral and medial aperture, which converge to form the central canal
  12. what is located on the "floor" of each ventricle? what is the purpose of this?
    • choroid plexus
    • structure: lined with ependymal cells, spongy mass of capillaries
    • fxn: makes Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)
  13. Describe the origin, composition, drainage, and fxn of CSF:
    • origin: subarachnoid space, choroid plexus
    • composition: sodium and choloride, little ptoassium, calcium, glucose, and very little protein
    • draninage:
    • 1. CSF is secreted by choroid plexus in each lateral ventricle
    • 2. CSF flows thru interventricular foramina into 3rd ventrical
    • 3. choroid plexus in 3rd ventricle adds more CSF
    • 4. CSF flows down cerebral aqueduct to forth ventricle
    • 5. Choroid plexus in fourth adds more CSF
    • 6. CSF flows out two lateral apertures and one median aperture
    • 7. CSF fills subarachnoid space and baths external surfaces of brain and spinal cord
    • 8. at arachnoid granulations, CSF is reabsorbed into venous blood of dural venous sinuses

    fxn: buoyancy, protection, chemical stability
  14. Describe the importance of maintaining the blood supply to the brain:
    high demand for ATP, so O2 and glucose are critical to nervous system
  15. Explain the structure and fxn of the blood brain barrier system:
    • Structure: meninges
    • fxn: tight jucntions between capillary walls, so tight it seals off gaps bewteen them so that everything must pass thur the cell not between the cells, occurs in the choronid plexus

    BBB is peramable to : h2o, glucose, O2, CO2, alcohol, nicotine, Na+, and K+

    BBB is imperable to: antibiotics, pathogens, toxins, and most drugs
  16. outline the arterial blood supply and venous draninage of the brain:
    • arterial blood supply
    • aortic arch
    • common carotid
    • internal carotid
    • vertebral artery
    • cerebral arterial circle (circle of willis)

    • venous drainage
    • venous sineus
    • superior saggital sineus
    • internal jugluar vein
    • external jugular vein
  17. what is the main drain of the brain?
    internal jugular vein
  18. Classify structres of the brain as part of the forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain, or brainstem:
    • forebrain
    • Cerebrum: frontal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, parietal lobe, insula, diencephalon, limbic system

    • midbrain
    • superior, inferior colliculus, cerebral peduncle
    • hindbrain
    • cerebellum
    • pons
    • medulla

    • brainstem
    • midbrain
    • hindbrain
    • diencephalon
  19. Describe the location and general fxn of the assinged regions of the forebrain:
    frontal,temporal, occipital, parietal, insula
    • frontal: memory, planning, mood, motor
    • temporal: hearing, smelling, learning (sensory memory)
    • occipital: vision
    • parietal: gerneral senses
    • insula: "island" interpurt language, tates (less understood)
  20. describe the location and general fxn of the assinged regions of the diencephalon:
    • location: interior, middle brain
    • structures: thalamus, hypothalamus, infundibulus, epithalamus, pineal gland
    • fxn: thalamus: communication between body and cortex, receives sensory info and then relays motor info
    • hypothalamus: mater control system for autonomous nerveous system and endocrine , feedback mech.,homeostatsis, hunger, thirst,temp, reproduction, metabolism, sleep rythems
    • epithalmus: pineal gland, secrets melatonin, role in regulating circadian rythem (how body responds to climate over time)
  21. Describe the structures and general fxn of the limbic system:
    • structures: amyagadal, cignulate gyrus, hippocampus
    • fxn: interconnections structures of the forebrain (memory and emotion)
  22. describe the location and general fxn assigned to the regions of the midbrain:
    superior and inferior colliculus
    • superior: vision tracking, including side vision
    • inferior: hearing, sound reflex
  23. describe the location and general fxn of the hindbrain:
    pons, medulla, cerebellum
    • pons: connection between cerebral cortex and rest of the body, sleep and respiration
    • medulla: vital sign control, cardiac center (HR), vasomotor center (BP), respitatory center (Rate/depth), other general senses and reflexs (chewing, coughing, sneezing,swalloing, and vomiting)
    • cerebellum: 10% of brain mass, large surface area, motor control, coordination, balance, posture, structure is white matter (arbor vitae, tree of life)
  24. the intention to contract a skeletal muscles beings in the ___________ and then transmitted to the ________ where neurons send signals to the brainstem and spinal cord which result in muslce contractions.
    • motor association area
    • primary motor cortex
  25. the association area of the brain that aids in planning, and why you intend to move is:
    frontal lobe
  26. visual signals are received by the ________ in the far posterior region of the occipial lobe, bordered anteriorily by the _______ which interpurts and makes cognitive sense of visual stimuli
    • primary visual cortex
    • visual association area
  27. auditory signals are recevied by the _______ in the superior region of the temporal lobe and in the insula, and the _______ is inferior to it, where we are capable of recognonizing spoken words, music or voice.
    • primary auditory cortex
    • auditory assoication area
  28. taste signal are recived by the ______ in the parietal lobe, while smell signal are received by the ______ in the temporal lobe
    • primary gustatory cortex
    • primary olfactory cortex
  29. from the lateral sulcus to the crown of the head to the longitudinal fissure is the ________ where awareness of stiumulation occurs, and adjacent to it is the _______in which making cognitives sense of the the stiumulation occurs.
    • primary somatosensory cortex
    • somatosensory association area
  30. the assiocation area of the brain that is involved in behavior planning, presonality, judgements and emotions is the :
    prefrontal cortex
  31. the association area of the brain that is responsible for the recongititon of spoken and written lanugage is the _________, according to learned rules of grammer and speech, if damaged will cause non-sense
    wernicke area
  32. the association area that generates a motor program for the muslces of the larynx, tongue, cheeks, and lips to produce speech is the_______, if damaged will cause slow speech or inability to form a word.
    broca area
  33. Explain the concept of cerebral lateralization:
    • each hemisphere is specialized for certain tasks, one side can take over for the other side
    • right brain: representational, imagination, patterns spatial relationships, music/arts
    • Left brain: categorical, analyitical/reasoning, science math
  34. what are the three main types of white matter (tracts)? describe each:
    • assocation tracts: transmits signals within same hemisphere, links perecpetion/memory Example - smell a rose, name it, picture it
    • commissural tracts: connects the two hemipsheres, corpus callosum
    • projection tracts: (pons) connects cerebrum to the main body, crosses over, brain/spinal cord
  35. Name the region of the brain affected by parkinson's disease and describe teh general symptoms of the deisease:
    • brain region: cerebral peduncle - contains substantia nigra (dark substance), nucleus whose neruons inhibit unwanted motors
    • symptoms: neruons degenerate, muscle motion difficulities, and muslce temors
  36. Identify the number, type of nerve, fxn, and what it innervates of the olfactory:
    • number: i
    • type: sensory
    • fxn: smell
    • innervates: olfactory mucosa in nasal cavity
  37. Identify the number, type of nerve, fxn, and what it innervates of the optic:
    • number: ii
    • type: sensory
    • fxn: vision
    • innervates: retina
  38. Identify the number, type of nerve, fxn, and what it innervates of the oculomotor nerve:
    • number: iii
    • type: motor
    • fxn: eye movements, focusing (lens/iris)
    • innervates: inferior oblique, superior oblique, medial rectus, and inferior rectus of the eye
  39. Identify the number, type of nerve, fxn, and what it innervates of the torchlear nerve:
    • number: iv
    • type: motor
    • fxn: eye movements
    • innervates: suprior oblique muscle
  40. Identify the number, type of nerve, fxn, and what it innervates of the trigeminal nerve:
    • number: v
    • type: both
    • fxn: sensory - touch, pain, face sensations
    • motor- mastication
    • innervates: nasal mucosa, facial muscles
  41. Identify the number, type of nerve, fxn, and what it innervates of the abducens nerve:
    • number: vi
    • type: motor
    • fxn: lateral eye movement
    • innervates: lateral retcus eye muscle
  42. Identify the number, type of nerve, fxn, and what it innervates of the facial never:
    • number: vii
    • type: both
    • fxn: sensory- taste , motor - facial expression, tears, saliva, mucos
    • innervates: facial muscles and glands
  43. Identify the number, type of nerve, fxn, and what it innervates of the vistibulocochlear nerve:
    • number: viii
    • type: sensory
    • fxn: hearing and equilibrum
    • innervates: inner ear
  44. Identify the number, type of nerve, fxn, and what it innervates of the glossopharyngeal:
    • number: ix
    • type: both
    • fxn: sensory - sensations from tongue and outer ear, blood pressue, motor- salivate, swallowing, gag reflex
    • innervates: tongue, salvia glands
  45. Identify the number, type of nerve, fxn, and what it innervates of the vagus:
    • number: x
    • type: both -
    • fxn: sensory- taste, hunger, GI tract, motor- swallowing, speech, heart, bronchioles, GI tract
    • innervates: visceral organs
  46. Identify the number, type of nerve, fxn, and what it innervates of the hypoglossal nerve:
    • number: xii
    • type: motor
    • fxn: tongue movements ( speech, food mastication)
    • innverates: tongue
  47. Identify the number, type of nerve, fxn, and what it innervates of the accessory nerve:
    • number: xi
    • type: motor
    • fxn:
    • innervates: neck
  48. a lesion/damage in the _______ area of the brain would cause nonsense speech
  49. what is the name of the disease that occurs when the substantia nigera are damaged/degenerated? what are the signs and symptoms?
    • parkinsons disease
    • signs: muscle tremor, muscle motion difficulties
  50. the cerebellum has (alot/little) surface area.

    its main fxns are:
    • alot
    • fxns: motor control, coordination, balance, posture
  51. From where do all cranial nerves originate?
  52. of the 12 crainal nerves, which nerve is has its roots in the spinal cord?
    accessory nerve
  53. which of the following is the correct order of the brain meninges and spaces from superficial to deep?

    a. dura mater, pia mater, arachnoid mater, subarachnoid space
    b. pia mater, subarachnoid space, arachnoid mater, dura mater
    c. dura mater, arachnoid mater, subarachnoid mater, pia mater
    d. pia mater, arachnoid mater, subarachoid space, dura mater
  54. which of the following types of neurons have no axon?

    a. multipolar
    b. anaxonic
    c. unipolar
    d. bipolar
  55. what tract makes connections between the right and left cerebral himispheres?

    a. association tracts
    b. railroad tracks
    c. commissural tracts
    d. projection tracts
    e. disc tracts
  56. the left side of the brain would most likely be responsible for:

    a. imagnation
    b. spatial realtionships
    c. analytical reasoning
    d. artistic functins
  57. which of the following is not a part of the forebrain:

    A. cerebellum
    B. cerebrum
    C. hypothalamus
    D. thalamus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  58. which of the following is part of the diencephalon?

    a. cerebrum
    b. thalamus
    c. cerebellum
    d. pons
    e. medulla oblongata
  59. The primary motor cortex is located where?

    a. frontal lobe
    b. temporal lobe
    c. wernicke's area
    d. postcentral gyrus
    e. precentral gyrus