HUN Exam3 Water Sol Vits

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  1. Name the 8 B vitamins
    • B1: Thiamin
    • B2: Riboflavin
    • B3: Niacin
    • Pantothemic acid
    • B6
    • Biotin
    • Folate
    • Vitamin B12
  2. All energy-yielding nutrients can eventually be converted to _____
    acetyl coA
  3. Coenzymes carry ____ (which are released during metabolism) and carry them to the electron transport chain. They react with ___ to produce water.
    • hydrogen atoms
    • oxygen (final electron acceptor)
  4. Molecs which are involved in metabolism and bind to enzymes & promote activity, acting as electrons, atoms, or molec carriers
  5. Active form of thiamin which converts pyruvate into acteyl coA
    Thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP)
  6. Food sources of thiamin
    Enriched & whole grains, legumes, pork
  7. Is there UL to thiamin?
  8. Effect of thiamin deficiency
  9. Thiamin is susceptible to:
    prolonged cooking
  10. Illness in which nervous system is damaged, muscle wastes (dry form), edema (wet form)
  11. Two active forms of riboflavin (B2), which are coenzymes and also involved in converting other vitamins into their active form
    FMN, FAD
  12. Sources of riboflavin
    Enriched & whole grains, milk, leafy veg, beef
  13. Riboflavin vulnerable to:
    light, irradiation
  14. Effects of riboflavin deficiency
    Sensitivity of high-turnover cells: facial skin, eyes, GI tract; "Ariboflavinosis"
  15. Is there UL for riboflavin?
  16. Trypotophan can be converted to ___
  17. Sources of niacin
    Meats, grains; tryptophan
  18. Is there UL for niacin?
    Yes, excess causes skin flushing, itching, nausea, liver damage
  19. Symptoms niacin deficiency
    pellegra; dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, death (4 Ds)
  20. What are health benefits of niacin?
    Lowers LDL, increases HDL
  21. Involved in synthesis of pyruvate to oxaloacetate and also in carboxylation reactions
  22. Sources biotin
    • egg yolks, organ meats, soybeans, whole grains
    • bacteria in GI tract
  23. Biotin destroyed by:
    alkaline pH
  24. Effects of biotin deficiency
    dermatitis, hair loss, loss appetite, nausea, hallucinations
  25. ___ in raw egg whites interferes with absorption of ____ by binding to it, reducing it's bioavailability
    • Avidin
    • biotin
  26. ___ is a part of coenzyme A
    pantothenic acid
  27. Involved in synthesis of lipids, NTs, steroids, hemoglobin
    Pantothenic acid
  28. Sources pantothenic acid
    • Widespread
    • (book: "meat, eggs, whole grains, legumes")
  29. Pantothenic acid destroyed by
  30. UL for pantothenic acid?
  31. Deficiency symptoms pantothenic acid
    • *Rare*
    • GI & nervous system failure, general body failure
  32. Involved in synthesis of NEAA (transamination), niacin or NT from tryptophan, heme precursor
  33. Coenzyme form of B6 (active form)
    pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)
  34. Sources B6
    Meats (best), legumes, whole grains, bananas, leafy veg
  35. B6 vulnerable to
    heat, light, whole grain milling
  36. UL for B6?
    Yes, excess causes nerve damage
  37. B6 used to treat:
    PMS, carpal tunnel
  38. Effects of B6 deficiency
    • Impaired protein synthesis (causes skin lesions)
    • Microcytic, hyopchromic anemia (small, pale b.c.s)
    • Seizures
    • Immune dysfunction
    • Growth failure
  39. Natural & synthetic forms of folate
    • natural: folate
    • synthetic: folic acid
  40. How is natural folate broken down and absorbed vs synthetic?
    Natural contains multiple glutamic acids & instestinal tract cleaves all but one off; folic acid only has only glutamic acid
  41. Coenzyme form of folate
    tetrahydrofolic acid (THF)
  42. Accepts & donates 1 C group, so involved in synthesis of DNA, AA metabolism, maturation of red blood cells, activation of B12 coenzyme
  43. Sources folate
    Enriched & fortified grains & snacks, OJ, dark green leafy veg, legumes
  44. Folate is vulnerable to:
    heat, oxidation, UV light
  45. Deficiency of folate causes:
    megablastic anemia, increased blood homocysteine levels, neural tube defects
  46. Type of disorder: large immature red blood cells which are few in number, causing low oxygen carrying capacity
    Megablastic anemia
  47. Pros/cons folate supplementation
    • Pros: reduce NTDs and blood homocysteine levels
    • Cons: may mask B12 deficiency
  48. Is there UL for folate?
  49. Coenzyme forms B12 (active forms)
    • methylcobalamin
    • 5-deoxyadenosylcobalamin
  50. B12 vulnerable to:
    relatively stable
  51. How is B12 absorbed?
    Complex process which requires intrinsic factor that is made in stomach, and then is absorbed in terminal ileum
  52. How is B12 transported?
    By transcobalamin (TC) which is a protein carrier
  53. What are symptoms of B12 deficiency
    memory loss, fatigue, peripheral neuropathy (causing paralysis, death), increased disease risk & NTDs (b/c association w/folate), pernicious anemia
  54. A macrocytic anemia that occurs when ___ cannot be absorbed due to a lack of intrinsic factor
  55. A protein produced in stomach that's needed for absorption of B12, and ppl with pernicious anemia lack it
    Intrinsic factor
  56. How does B12 deficiency cause macrcocytic anemia?
    Causes homocysteine levels to rise, & folate can't be converted into active form. Lack of folate causes macrocytic anemia
  57. Causes of B12 deficiency
    • Inadequate absorption due to lack of intrinsic factor or lack of HCL in stomach
    • Inadequate intake
  58. In general, grains have 4 B vitamins:
    • Thiamin
    • Riboflavin
    • Niacin
    • Folate
  59. In general, fruits and vegetables have 1 B vitamin:
  60. In general, meats have 4 B vitamins:
    thiamin, niacin, B6, B12
  61. In general, milk products have 2 B vitamins
    • riboflavin
    • B12
  62. Vitamins & their coenzymes
    Pantothenic acid:
    • Thiamin: TPP
    • Riboflavin: FMN, FAD
    • Niacin: NAD, NADP
    • Biotin:
    • Pantothenic acid: coA
    • B6: PLP
    • Folate: THF
    • B12:
  63. Vitamin C is important in collagen synthesis & is involved in hydroxylation of ___ and ____
    proline, lysine
  64. Vit C vulnerable to:
    heat, oxygen, light
  65. Disorder causing weakness, pinpoint skin hemorrhages, bleeding gums, poor wound healing, rough & scaly skin, bone softening, small cell type anemia
  66. Disorder occurs in infants only; bony changes during rapid growth (calcification)
    Scorbutic Rosary
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HUN Exam3 Water Sol Vits
HUN Exam3 Water Sol Vitamins
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