HUN Exam3 Water Sol Vits
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Name the 8 B vitamins
- B1: Thiamin
- B2: Riboflavin
- B3: Niacin
- Pantothemic acid
- Vitamin B12
All energy-yielding nutrients can eventually be converted to _____
Coenzymes carry ____ (which are released during metabolism) and carry them to the electron transport chain. They react with ___ to produce water.
- hydrogen atoms
- oxygen (final electron acceptor)
Molecs which are involved in metabolism and bind to enzymes & promote activity, acting as electrons, atoms, or molec carriers
Active form of thiamin which converts pyruvate into acteyl coA
Thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP)
Food sources of thiamin
Enriched & whole grains, legumes, pork
Is there UL to thiamin?
Effect of thiamin deficiency
Thiamin is susceptible to:
Illness in which nervous system is damaged, muscle wastes (dry form), edema (wet form)
Two active forms of riboflavin (B2), which are coenzymes and also involved in converting other vitamins into their active form
Sources of riboflavin
Enriched & whole grains, milk, leafy veg, beef
Riboflavin vulnerable to:
Effects of riboflavin deficiency
Sensitivity of high-turnover cells: facial skin, eyes, GI tract; "Ariboflavinosis"
Is there UL for riboflavin?
Trypotophan can be converted to ___
Sources of niacin
Meats, grains; tryptophan
Is there UL for niacin?
Yes, excess causes skin flushing, itching, nausea, liver damage
Symptoms niacin deficiency
pellegra; dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, death (4 Ds)
What are health benefits of niacin?
Lowers LDL, increases HDL
Involved in synthesis of pyruvate to oxaloacetate and also in carboxylation reactions
- egg yolks, organ meats, soybeans, whole grains
- bacteria in GI tract
Biotin destroyed by:
Effects of biotin deficiency
dermatitis, hair loss, loss appetite, nausea, hallucinations
___ in raw egg whites interferes with absorption of ____ by binding to it, reducing it's bioavailability
___ is a part of coenzyme A
Involved in synthesis of lipids, NTs, steroids, hemoglobin
Sources pantothenic acid
- (book: "meat, eggs, whole grains, legumes")
Pantothenic acid destroyed by
UL for pantothenic acid?
Deficiency symptoms pantothenic acid
- GI & nervous system failure, general body failure
Involved in synthesis of NEAA (transamination), niacin or NT from tryptophan, heme precursor
Coenzyme form of B6 (active form)
pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)
Meats (best), legumes, whole grains, bananas, leafy veg
B6 vulnerable to
heat, light, whole grain milling
UL for B6?
Yes, excess causes nerve damage
B6 used to treat:
PMS, carpal tunnel
Effects of B6 deficiency
- Impaired protein synthesis (causes skin lesions)
- Microcytic, hyopchromic anemia (small, pale b.c.s)
- Immune dysfunction
- Growth failure
Natural & synthetic forms of folate
- natural: folate
- synthetic: folic acid
How is natural folate broken down and absorbed vs synthetic?
Natural contains multiple glutamic acids & instestinal tract cleaves all but one off; folic acid only has only glutamic acid
Coenzyme form of folate
tetrahydrofolic acid (THF)
Accepts & donates 1 C group, so involved in synthesis of DNA, AA metabolism, maturation of red blood cells, activation of B12 coenzyme
Enriched & fortified grains & snacks, OJ, dark green leafy veg, legumes
Folate is vulnerable to:
heat, oxidation, UV light
Deficiency of folate causes:
megablastic anemia, increased blood homocysteine levels, neural tube defects
Type of disorder: large immature red blood cells which are few in number, causing low oxygen carrying capacity
Pros/cons folate supplementation
- Pros: reduce NTDs and blood homocysteine levels
- Cons: may mask B12 deficiency
Is there UL for folate?
Coenzyme forms B12 (active forms)
B12 vulnerable to:
How is B12 absorbed?
Complex process which requires intrinsic factor that is made in stomach, and then is absorbed in terminal ileum
How is B12 transported?
By transcobalamin (TC) which is a protein carrier
What are symptoms of B12 deficiency
memory loss, fatigue, peripheral neuropathy (causing paralysis, death), increased disease risk & NTDs (b/c association w/folate), pernicious anemia
A macrocytic anemia that occurs when ___ cannot be absorbed due to a lack of intrinsic factor
A protein produced in stomach that's needed for absorption of B12, and ppl with pernicious anemia lack it
How does B12 deficiency cause macrcocytic anemia?
Causes homocysteine levels to rise, & folate can't be converted into active form. Lack of folate causes macrocytic anemia
Causes of B12 deficiency
- Inadequate absorption due to lack of intrinsic factor or lack of HCL in stomach
- Inadequate intake
In general, grains have 4 B vitamins:
In general, fruits and vegetables have 1 B vitamin:
In general, meats have 4 B vitamins:
thiamin, niacin, B6, B12
In general, milk products have 2 B vitamins
Vitamins & their coenzymes
- Thiamin: TPP
- Riboflavin: FMN, FAD
- Niacin: NAD, NADP
- Pantothenic acid: coA
- B6: PLP
- Folate: THF
Vitamin C is important in collagen synthesis & is involved in hydroxylation of ___ and ____
Vit C vulnerable to:
heat, oxygen, light
Disorder causing weakness, pinpoint skin hemorrhages, bleeding gums, poor wound healing, rough & scaly skin, bone softening, small cell type anemia
Disorder occurs in infants only; bony changes during rapid growth (calcification)
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