MicroPhys- Ch.7 enzymes

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kayceejv
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116372
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MicroPhys- Ch.7 enzymes
Updated:
2011-11-13 17:57:49
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weber state microphys chapter7 enzymes
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Important enzymes from chapter 7
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  1. endoglucanase
    can hydrolyze a-1,4-glucoside bonds of starch into monomers, dimers and oligomers (ex: a-amylase)
  2. b-amylase
    removes maltose from non-reducing end of amylose
  3. glucoamylase
    removes glucose from non-reducing end of amylose
  4. pullalanase and isoamylase
    debranching enzymes - hydrolyze a-1,6-glucoside bonds of amylopectin and glycogen
  5. exoglucanse
    removes from non-reducing end
  6. amylase
    breaks down starch to be utilized as energy and carbon source (a-1,4 only)
  7. endo-b-glucanase
    hydrolyzes amorphous regions of cellulose to generate dimers (cellobiose)
  8. exo-b-glucanse/B-glucosidase
    degrade cellobiose
  9. c-1 cellulase
    loosens crystalline structure of cellulose to create more amorphous regions (theorized)
  10. Hydrolases
    catalyze hydrolysis AB + H2O = A-OH + B-H
  11. Phosphorylase
    adds an inorganic phosphate AB + P = A + B-P (note: No ATP)
  12. pectin esterase
    first step in pectin degradation - removes methyl group as methanol (Erwinia carotovora)
  13. pectinase
    second step in pectin degradation - breaks down a-1,4-polygalactouronate to galactouronate monomers
  14. chitinase
    second step in chitin degradation - breaks down B-1,4-N-acetylglucosamine to monomers - hydrolyzes chitosan to chitinase (serratia, pseudomonas, bacillus, streptomyces)
  15. chitindeacetylase
    first step in chitin degradation - removes acetyl group, creates chitosan
  16. Disaccharide phosphorylases
    Transport disaccs into cell without the use of ATP. Phosphorylate a monosaccharide of the disaccharide with inorganic phosphate and liberates the other monosacc.
  17. cellobiose phosphorylase
    phosphorylates cellobiose to create glucose-1-phosphate and glucose
  18. maltose phosphorylase
    phosphorylates maltose to create glucose-1-phosphate and glucose
  19. sucrose phosphorylase
    phosphorylates sucrose to create glucose-1-phosphate and glucose
  20. proteinases
    recognize peptide bonds between specific amino acid sequences and hydrolyze them - may be pH specific, alkaline proteinases have the broadest activity - must be extracelular to utilize extracellular polymers for energy
  21. lipases
    degrade phospholipids or triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids
  22. DN/RNases
    break down nucleic acid polymers into nucleotides
  23. kinases
    phosphorylate things with high energy phosphate donor (ex. ATP)
  24. hexokinase
    phosphorylates fructose to fructose-6-p or mannose to mannose-6-p after active transport into cell
  25. isomerases
    rearrange things
  26. 1-phosphofructokinase
    phosphorylates fructose-1-p to fructose-1,6-dp after group translocation into cell
  27. phosphoglucomutase
    converts glucose-1-p to glucose-6-p
  28. Acyl-CoA Synthetase
    Setup step for B-oxidation - forms acyl-CoA from fatty acids and coenzyme-A
  29. Fatty acyl-CoA dehydrogenase
    first oxidation reaction in B-ox, forms FADH
  30. 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA hydrolase
    second B-ox step: H2O added
  31. L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase
    third step in B-ox: forms NADH+H
  32. Acyl COA acyltransferase
    Last step in B-ox: Acetyl-CoA split off and CoA added to acyl portion
  33. pyruvate dehydrogenase
    pyruvate to acetyl CoA
  34. amino acid oxidases
    • Remove amino group from amino acids with low specificity. Use FAD as prosthetic group
    • Can produce toxic hydrogen peroxide so not all orgs. can use.
  35. Amino acid dehydrogenase
    • Oxidative deamination. Oxidizes L-alanine to pyruvate or glutamate to 2-ketoglutarate. Uses NAD+ as a prosthetic group.
    • Highly specific, most organisms use this pw.
  36. Transaminase
    • Transfers NH2 group of AA to 2-keto acids.
    • ALL aas can be deaminated with a transaminase working with a dehydrogenase. Most common pathway for amino acid degradation.
  37. Amino acid dehydratase
    Works selectively on serine and threonine to remove and amine and a hydroxyl group at the same time.
  38. Aspartate and histidine dehydratases
    Remove amine and hydroxyl from aspartate and histidine and add a double bond between carbons 2 and 3.
  39. Desulfhydrase
    removes an amino group and a sulfide from methionine and cysteine
  40. transmethylase
    converts methionine to homocysteine
  41. monooxygenase
    can add one molecule of oxygen from O2 to substrate at cytoplasmic membrane
  42. dioxygenase
    can incorporate both atoms of O from O2 into one substrate
  43. secondary alcohol dehydrogenase
    oxidizes a secondary alcohol to a ketone
  44. diol dehydrogenase
    oxidizes butanediol to acetoin (a ketone)
  45. acetoin dehydrogenase complex (keto acid dehydrogenase)
    oxidizes acetoin to acetyl aldehyde and acetyl CoA
  46. dehydrogenase
    oxidize things (oxidation is loss)
  47. alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase
    oxidize primary alcohols and aldehydes to fatty acids
  48. methane monooxygenase
    oxidizes methane to methanol using NADH as a cosubstrate
  49. methanol dehydrogenase
    reduces pyrollquinoline quinone coupled to the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde
  50. formaldehyde/formate dehydrogenase
    oxidize formaldehyde in the free form to CO2 via formate
  51. tetrahydrofolate
    oxidizes bound formaldehyde to CO2
  52. tetrahydromethanopterin
    oxidizes bound formaldehyde to CO2 (gram negative methanogens)

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