Lifecycle Nutrition

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Lifecycle Nutrition
2011-11-13 16:39:38
Exam Section

Applications and Case Studies in Clinical Nutrition
Show Answers:

  1. _______ is the strongest predictor of an infants probable future health status.
    Birth weight
  2. Newborns weighing ______ lb at birth are more likely to survuve the first 12 mos. of life
    7 3/4-10
  3. The weight if a newborn is influenced by many factors, including the a) _____. Healthy term infants generally weigh more than those born preterm and less than those born postterms (after b) ______weeks of pregnancy.)
    • a) gestational age
    • b) 42
  4. Low-birth-weight infants weigh <5 lb a)____ or b) _____g at birth.
    • a) 8
    • b) 42
  5. The a)_________ is quick assessment methos to determine the overall health of newborns. The muscle tone, heart rate, breathing, reflexes, and b) ____of the infants are rated on a scale of one to 10, at 1 and 5 mon. after birth. A score over c) _______ at 5 min. predicts a healthy infant.
    • a) Apgar score
    • b) Skin color
    • c) 7
  6. Body parameters used to assess the groth of infants and todders over time onclude their weight, length, and ______.
    head circumference
  7. Commercial infant formulas try to match the ______, digestability, and performance or breast milk.
  8. _________ is the progressive transition from nursing or bottle-feeding to drinking from a cup, with the parallel intoduction of other foods to the infant's or toddler's diet to replace the breast milk or infant formula.
  9. The growth of children is the most rapid
    A) in the preteen yrs. (9-12 yrs old)
    B) in preschoolers (3-5 yrs. old)
    C) in school-age children (5-10 yrs. old)
    D) during the toddler years (1-3 yrs. old)
    E) during infancy (first year of life)
    E) during infancy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. The avg. birth weight in both the US and Canada is about _____.
    A) 5.5 lbs
    B) 7.25 lbs
    C) 6 lbs
    D) 7.75 lbs
    E) 6.5 lbs
    B) 7.25 lbs
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Which source of energy does the brain almost exclusively rely on, which also represents approx. 38% of the energy in breast milk?
  12. ____________ is the main source of CHO for breastfed infants and infants given a cow's milk-based infant formula.
  13. What doos should newborns be given?
    • breast milk (best)
    • iron-fortified infant formula
  14. Do formula-fed infants need a vitamin D supplement?
    No, if they are comsuming a suffucuent amt
  15. What enzymes present in breast milk help infants with the digestion of dietary starches once they start eating their first soild food?
  16. All newborns in the US and Canafa recieve a single supplemental injection dose of _____ at birth to prevent deficiency.
    vitamin K
  17. What is the main protein of cow's milk, and the main source of protein in cow's milk-based infant formulas?
  18. The energy and nutrient needs of infants, based on lbs of kg of body weight per day, are higher than for _____.
    a) toddlers
    b) school-age children
    c) teenagers
    d) adults
    e) all of the above
    e) all of the above
  19. At 12 mos old, infants can ingest and digest more complex foods. By this time, the should be eating_____.
    A) milk products, including yogurt and cheese
    B) bread, cereal, rice, and pasta
    C) vegtables and fruits
    D) a variety of foods from all food groups
    E) mear, poultry, fish, beans, and eggs
    D) a variety of foods from all food groups
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. The gorwth of infants is influenced by
    a) their gestational age and birth weight
    b) the type of feedinf (breastfed or formula fed)
    c) the stature of their parents
    d) their enviroment
    e) all of the above
    e) all of the above
  21. Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) babies weigh less than __lbs (___g) at birth.
    A) 4.4; 2000
    B) 2.2; 1000
    C) 3.3; 1500
    D) 6.6; 3000
    E) 5.5; 2500
    C) 3.3; 1500
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. A newborm of weight for gestational age between the 10th and 90th percentiles on growth charts born at 40 weeks of pregnancy is
    a term infant, who is large for gestational age
  23. A newborn of weight for gestational age under the third percentile on growth charts born at 39 weeks of pregnany is
    a term infant, who is small for gestational age.
  24. A newborn of weight for gestational age under the theird percentile on gorwth charts born at 36 weeks of pregnancy
    a preterm infant, who is small for gestational age
  25. A newborn of weight for gestational over the 95th percentile on growth charts born at 43 weeks of pregnancy is
    a postterm infant, who is large for gestational age
  26. Health care providers become concerned with weight loss continues beyond __ days of life.
  27. Infants' birth weight usually _______ by about 5 mos. and ____ by 1 year.
    doubles; triples
  28. Infants' length usually increases by about ______% in the first year
  29. Common motor skill development for 3 mos includes?
    Reach to grab and object and miss
  30. A what age can a infant life their chin up when lying on stomach?
    1 mos
  31. Between what ages can an infant learn to drink from a sippy cup?
    6-9 mos
  32. By ________ mos of age, infants usually sit in a chair, self-feed finger foods using the pincer grasp technique, drink from an open cup, and say a few words?
    A) 10
    B) 7
    C) 12
    D) 8
    E) 6
    C) 12
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. Which food remains the main food (main source of energy an nutrients) up to 12 mos. of age?
    A) Infant cereals
    B) a and/or b
    C) Infant fed formula (iron fortified)
    D) Iron-fortified infant cereals
    E) breast milk
    B) a and/or b
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. It is necessary to bring all water for feeding infants (including that to prepare infant formula) under )_______ mos of age to a rolling boil for a least ______ min. to ensure that it is pathogen free?
    A) 4;1
    B) 2;4
    C) 1;5
    D) 3;3
    E) 4;2
    E) 4;2
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. What is the energy density of mature breast milk?
    A) 12 kcal/fl oc
    B) 20 kcal/fluid oz
    C) 8 kcal/fluid oz
    D) 24 kcal/ floz
    E) 12 kcal/fl oz
    B) 20 kcal/fluid oz
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. Infants exclusively breastfed have a daliy energy intake of about ________kcal in the first 4-6 mos.
  37. Which statement about the est. energy requirments per lb or kg body weight for infants is incorrect?
    A) The proprotion of energy needed to support basal metabolism, growth, and activity changes through-out of the first year of like.
    B) During the first 2 mos. of like an infant's thermoregulatory system requires extra energy to adapt from wonb temp to room temp.
    C)The basal energy requirement of infats is more than that of adults per lb of kg of body weight.
    D) An infant's daily energy needs for growth are greatest between 6-12 mos.
    E) The basal metabolic energy needs are about the same during the first 12 mos.
    D) An infant's daily energy needs for growth are greatest between 6-12 mos.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. The DRI micronutrient recommendations for young infants are________, which are based on the mean intake of healthy breastfed infants.
    A) AIs
    B) EER's
    C) ULs
    D) RDAs
    E) EARs
    A) AIs
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. What is the AI of protein for younger infants aged 0-6 mos. old?
    1.52 g/kg/day
  40. What is the main energy supply for infants?
    fatty, fat, fat
  41. What fatty acids are present in significant quantities in breast milk?
    • Linolenic acid
    • DHA
    • Arachidonic acid
    • EPA
    • Oleic acid
  42. The fact that breast milk contains _______ is espically an advantage for infants born before 37 wks. of pregnancy?
  43. If an infant is partially breastfed, it is recommneded to give
    A) follow-up iron-fortified cow's milk-based infant formula up to 12 mos.
    B) pasteurized whole cow's milk up to 24 mos.
    C) fortified soy beverage
    D) iron0fortified cows milk-based infant formula up to 12 mos
    E) iron-fortified soy-based infant formula up to 12 mos of age
    E) iron-fortified soy-based infant formula up to 12 mos of age
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. T/F: Breast milk is more economical than commercial powder, concentrate, or ready-to-feed human milk substitutes. Explain.
    • True:
    • less espensive
    • less medical costs than formula fed infants (immunologic protection in breast milk)
  45. T/F: Follow-up commercial infant formulas contain more Ca and protein than starter infant formulas and are designed for older infants (6-18 mos)
    • True
    • Older infants require more Ca and protein, so it has been modified
    • lower whey-to-casein ratio than starter cow's milk
  46. T/F: Breastfed babies have softer stools than most formula-fed babies.
  47. When infant formula is intorduced at birth, it does not have to be iron-fortified until 6 mos. of age.
    False. Regardless of when it is intoroduced it needs to be fortified.
  48. T/F: When solids are introduced into the infants diet, whole milk should become their main sources.
    • False.
    • Whole milk should be intorduced later between 9-12 mos.
    • WM doesnt provoide enough energy and nutrients( fat, iron, Vit. C) to meet the needs of infants.
  49. T/F: Commercial infant formulas are as good as breast milk.
    • False.
    • Breast milk has immunologic abd socioeconomic advantages
  50. Babies exclusively breastfed can be weaned directly to drinking from a cup
    True. Not necessary to to introduce bottles. process must be progressive.
  51. How is the alimentary tract of newborns different from that of older children?
    • GI tract is immature and isnt ready to recieve anything other than breast milk in first 4 mos.
    • Smaller
    • lower concentration of digestive juices
  52. What should be the first food intorduced into the diet of infants? How is the first soild food prepared and served? Age? How much?
    • Iron-fortified infant cereals (single grain rice of barley)
    • Made with formula or breast milk, lukewarm
    • Age: 4-6 mos
    • They tell you!
  53. Give 5 reasons why it is advantageous to introduce iron-fortified cereal as the first soild food in the diet of infants?
    • 1) Breast Milk contains an amylase to hekp infants digest starch
    • 2) There is an uncreased need for dietary iron after 4-6 mos
    • 3) Infant cereals readily mix with fluids such as breast milk or infatn formula and they are at a consistency easily swallowed by infants
    • 4) There is low risk of allergy
    • 5) it is a good source of energy, CHO and nutrients
  54. What should a parent do if the baby does not like this solid food? Explain.
    • 1) Try another time of the day when the baby is hungrier
    • 2) Reassess of the baby is ready for it, and maybe wait longer. Try again after a few weeks.
    • 3) Do not force the baby to eat. Try another day when the baby is happier and more interested.
    • 4) Choose a brand of iron-enriched intant cereal that does not already contain infant formula, so you can mix it with breast milk.
    • 5) Try another flavor of starter formula
    • 6) Set a positive enviroment, fun, encouraging, fun plates/spoon
  55. How can allergic reactions to the first soild foods be prevented?
    • 1) WAIT until 4-6 mos. of age.
    • 2) Offer a single grain infant cereal, making it eaiser to know which food is causing the problem.
    • 3) Intorduce one new food at a time over a few days
    • 4) 2-3% of infants are allergic to casien in cow's milk
    • 5) If the mother of father has a allergy dont introduce it right away
    • 6) Consult a pediatrician or allergist if there is a family history of allergies
  56. Can the introduction of solid food be delayed?
    • NO. It shouldnt be rushed or delayed
    • Infants iron reserves are depleted after 5 mos. and breast milk or infant formula alone does not provide the infant with the iron needed to meet their increased needs.
    • Improtant to stimulate sensory-motor development
    • stimulate social and emotional growth
  57. What solid foods can be intoduced at 4-6 mos.?
    • Iron-fortified infant cereal
    • pureed vegtables
    • pureed fruits
  58. What solid foods can be intoduced at 6-9 mos.?
    • pureed cooked meat
    • fish
    • cheick
    • mashed beans
    • egg yolk
  59. What solid foods can be intoduced at 9-12 mos.?
    • Other grain products
    • bread
    • cereal
    • rice
    • pasta
    • milk products (Whole milk until 2 years of age)
  60. A food allergy
    A) to milk often resolves by 3 years of age
    B) is more common than foos intolerance
    C) is not associated with an immune system reaction
    D) can be caused by toxic response
    E) can be infection related
    A) to milk often resolves by 3 years of age
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  61. Which of the following is not one if the most common food allergens in infants and children?
    • a) Fish
    • b) Eggs
    • c) Wheat
    • d) Rice
    • e) Soy
  62. Which statement a about the US CDC growth charts is incorrect?
    a) They are bases on comparitive data from large-scale studies of healthy infants and are one of the most useful nutrition assessment tools used in peds.
    b) They allow assessment of growth from birth to 20 yrs.
    c) They help to assess the past and present growth of infants ans children.
    d) They help to predict future or expected growth patterns of infants and children.
    e) they range from the fifth to the 95th percentiles.
    e) The range from the fith to the 95th percentiles.
  63. What does the 50th percentile curve represent on the head circumference-for-age growth chart?
    Avg. head circumference size for age and sex
  64. An infant with a weight on the 85th percentile curve of the weight-for-age growth chart ________ infants of same age and sex in the reference population.
    A) weights <85% of the 100
    B) weighs >15% of the
    C) weifhs >15% of 100
    D) weighs <15% of 1000
    E) weights <15% of the
    E) weights <15% of the
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  65. What are some for the 2006 WHO growth standards from birth to 5 yrs?
    • Weight-for-age
    • Length/height-for-age
    • BMI-for-age
    • Head-circumference-for-age
  66. These are indicators of dietary protein overolad in an infant, whcih can happen when the infant formula is not duiluted wnough during its preperation, except
    A) elevated blood urea
    B) acidosis
    C) constipation
    D) fever
    E) dehydration
    C) constipation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  67. Which of these statements about the importance of fat in the diet of infants is false?
    A) It protects their internal organs and keeps them warms
    B) Fat is concentrated source of energy
    C) If supplies essential AA
    D) It promotes the growth of their brain and nervous system
    E) Fat imparts flavor and satiety
    C) If supplies essential AA
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  68. About _____% of the energy provided by breast milk comes from fat.
  69. _________ deficiency is the leading cause of anemia in infants.
  70. Fruit juices
    a) can be intorduced at 7 mos. of age
    b) should be pure juice diluted 1:1 with water and given in a sup
    c) should be limited to about 4 fl oz/day
    d) should NOT replace breast milk, infant formulas, or other nutrient-dense foods, like infant cereals
    e) all of the above
    e) all of the above
  71. The most precalent nutrient deficient among Canadian and US infants is a deficiency in which micronutrient?
  72. "A condition of inadequate weight or height gain throught to result from an energy intake deficit, wether or not the cause can be indentified as a health problem" is the definition for________. It can be organic (caused by a diseased state) and/or inorganic (possibly the result of parental neglet) in nature.
    failure to thrive
  73. The infant formula used in case of intolerance to both cow's milk- and shoy-based infatn formula contains AA and small peptides instead of whole proteins. What is the term for the special formula?
  74. The daily RDA for ______ for 5-12-month-old infants is more then that of an adult man?
    Vit. D
  75. Why is cow's milk not appropriate as the first milk for newborns and young infants?
    • high casein and Na
    • increases risk of casien allergy
    • poor source of iron
    • NO immunoglobulins
  76. 5 feeding practices that contribute to the low iron intake in healthy infants?
    • Cows milk
    • breastfed for to short of time
    • excessice amounts of milk
    • no iron fortified ceral
    • delayed intorduction to meat
  77. What are the nine main safety issues when feeding infants?
    Avoid foods that can cause