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How is language important for the development of self?
- It is in language that our symbolic capacity is imbedded upon which self reference depends.
- Language provides the system of names for self or others that makes possible the individual participation in group life as well as the incorporation of group life within the individual
- Language provides a vast array of labels for other important objects, so that the child is bought into contact not just with the group but also with their environment which the group lives, i.e language confronts the child with culture.
What is socialisation anh what are the agents of socialisation (informal and formal)?
- Socialisation explains how people learn the cultural norms, morals, responses and emotions deemed acceptable by society.
- It is the process which we learn to integrate and fit into society.
- Socialisation starts at birth and continues through the life span.
- Agents of socialisation (the people/places from whom we learn what we know)
- Formal: Religion, Media
- Informal: Family, peer groups
Explain the Cooley looking glass self.
- Cooley's looking glass self propose that socialisation and our sense of self occurs via a mirroring effect- the self depends on other responses to us and our interactions with others
- According to the looking glass self, we imagines how we appear to others. Our self idea develops in relation to how we imagine others to perceive or judge us.
- Our self idea emerges though the attitude we develop towards ourselves based on how we believe others perceive us.
- Our self idea is developed in three key stages
- 1) We imagine how we appear to others
- 2) Our self idea develops in relation to how we imagine others perceive or judge us
- 3) Our self idea emerges through the "self-feeling" or attitude we develop toward ourselves, based on how we believe others perceive us.
Explain Primary and Secondary groups.
- A primary group can be described as a group of individuals who share an intimate relationship and face to face interaction. In a primary group, group members identify with the group, co-operate and sympathize with one another, and share responsiblities and culture. Primary groups have a strong influence on a person's self.
- A secondary group tends to have few personal relationships and be temporary and form for a specific purpose. They are larger than primary groups and more disparate and members have less direct contact with each other.
Explain George Herbert Mead I & Me.
- Mead suggest that the self is an on-going social process between self and others as well as between different parts of self.
- The "I" represents implusive and instinctual habits while the "me" is an objective social self that expresses the gaze of others.
- The "Me" is formed though the mirroring process and regulates the "I". The "Me" emerges as a result of socialisation.
Describe the three stages of imitation and role play.
- The first stage known as the Preparatory stage, children simply act out the part. For example,they merely imitate and repeat words without knowing what they mean.
- The Second stage, known as the play stage, children make use of language and engage in make believe e.g. acting out adult roles . At this stage, they take on one role at a time. The "me" and generalised other develops at this stage.
- The third stage, the game stage, the child learns to manage several roles at time. The child recongizes that role are related to one another in the form of relationships. Play is governed by rules and the child is able to follow them to play games. The child learns social norms and values in the process.