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What is semantics?
study of meaning of words, phrases, and sentences
what are the 3 aspects of linguistic meaning?
- information content
What is sense?
aspect of meaning that is indep. of what it may refer to in real world. Speaker mental conception of words meaning
what is information content?
info conveyed by or contained in a linguistic unit such as phrase, sent, or utterance.
what is reference?
particular entity (idea,obj) to which a word or linguistic expression relates
ways in which meanings of syntactic structure combined to determine meaning of phrases.
reference of term (wd or phrase) that does not always pick out or refer to same object
what is a drawback to teory of reference?
we need sense! if no sense, word meaning will be restricted
what is mental image?
assoc. with word, typically has prototype
collection of words in lang, mental dictioanry
collection of items of some sort, no order, no relation, but share some particular property denoted by a particular word
more specific term a word whose denotation is always included in set of things denoted by hypernym
a more general term- word whose denotation always includes set of things denoted by some hyponym
property of words that have same denotation
words that are same level of any given hierarchy of sets of semantic features
opposite, related yet contrastic meaning
pair of antonyms such that everything must be described by 1st word, 2nd word or neither
- words taht are antonyms and denote opposite ends of a scale
- ex) easy,hard
one word in the pair suggests movement that "undoes" the movement suggested by the other.
2 opposing point of views, for one member of the pair to have reference, the other must as well
conditions that must be met in order for a word to be appropriate to use
what are truth values?
truth of a sentence-- T or F
____is an improtant part of sentence meaning
What are 'possible scenarios"?
possible ways that a world could have been like, when in fact, it didn't.
a possible state of affairs that differs from actual state of affairs in some particular way.
principle of compositionality
meaning of words+ order of words=meaning of sentence
cases where sequence of words are not taken literally
ex) pulling my leg
what are teh 2 things we want to know about the meaning of sentence?
- 1) truth values
- 2) truth conditions
what are the 4 types of intersections in adjective meanings?
- 1)pure intersection
- 2)intersective adjectives
- 3) relative intersections
- 4)subsective adj
relationship between adjective denotation and noun denotation s.t. that adj picks out a set of things relative to set of things denoted by noun that it is modifying and relative to the context in which it is being used.
ex)loud explosion vs loud whisper
relationship between the denotations of an adjective and a noun s.t each pics out a particular group of things, and the denotation of the phrase that results from modifying the noun with the adjecive is all of the things that are in both the adjective and noun sets.
adj whose denotation picks out a set of referents independently from the set of referents denoted by the noun being modified.
ex) green-----sweater= green sweater
adj that derives its meaning by picking out a subset of the things from the set of things denoted by the noun being modified.
study of how context affects language: even if utterance is/isn't felicitous(well chosen) in a given context and how the context affects the utterances meaning or interpretation.
- a speech event: particular occurance of a person speaking.
- content that's said -words, phrases, sentences
Does a sentence have context? why or why not?
no, because it is an abstract idea and not an event
word or expression that takes its meaning relative to time, place, and speaker of the utterance.
linguistic environment in which an utternace is uttered: specifically, the discourse that has immediately preceded the utterance in question.
the aspect of an utterance's context that inclds. info about the social relatnshp betwn participants in the discourse, status relative to each other, etc.
aspect of an utterances context that includes such info as who and where teh speakers are, what's going on around them and their environments.
What are the 3 types of contexts and what do they provide?
- they provide critical info about what utterances mean.
What is felicitous?
utterance that is situatioinally appropriate
principle formulated by Grice stating that underlying a conversation is the understanding that what one says is intended to contribute to the purposes of the conversation.
set of conversational rules to enforce compliance with cooperative principle
What are the 4 of Grice's maxims?
Maxim of quality
make contribution to one that is true
maxim of QUANTITY
do not make your contribution more or less informative than required
Maxim of informativeness
read maximal sterotypical interpretations into minimal expressions
maxim of manner
avoid obscurity and ambiguity of expression, be brief and orderly
speech usually assoc. with or used within a particular occupation, hobby, or sport.
violating a maxim to convey a particular message, countering what was originally said.
relationship between 2 sentences s.t. the 1st is true, 2nd one MUST be true.
form of indirect communcation without entailment
conclusion that a person is reasonably entitled to draw from an implication or implicature
idea that is communicated based on the way language is used, based on what speaker knows about the language.
actions performed only through lang. descirbes use of speech emphasizes speakers intention/goal in producing an utternace.
What are 6 common speech acts?-
**question a request that is ordered to assert a promsing threat.
describes an utterance that is important for the context
performative speech act
speech that uses a performative verb
verb that denotes a linguistic action
When using a performative verb, what must be true about the sentence?
subject must be 'I' or 'we' since speech acts concern the interaction between speakers/hearers
How can we check if a verb is performative?
- 'hereby' test.
- Insert 'hereby' before the alleged performative verb
direct speech acts
perform functions in direct and literal manner
indirect speech acts
utterance that is performed in an indirect manner
underlying assumption that must be satisfied in order for an utterence to make sense (or for it to be debatable)
saying an utterance to which the speaker supposes something exists.