Archaeology E2

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Archaeology E2
2011-11-13 23:06:23

Gonna rock this exam like a wagon wheel...
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  1. Processual Archaeology
    "New Archaeology" The past is knowable, objective, nuetral, can be understood through rigorous application of the scientific method. Pre 1980s. Patty Jo Watson.
  2. Post-processual Archaeology
    We create the past, subjective, limited by our own cultural experiences, thumb nose at authority. 1980s-present. Stems from post-modernism. Ian Hodder.
  3. Icons
    Potent condensation of social meaning. Evocative symbols that tell preexisting stories of gender, heroism, motherhood, and social roles to encultured individuals.
  4. Schemata (Motiffs)
    Representations of objects that are replicated from one form to another with little variation. Ex: Chick on a hide, man the noble savage, maddona with child, man the mighty hunter
  5. Why Gifford Gonzalez is concerned
    Inform our research, perpetuate stereotypes, construct knowledge of lay persons, narrow/repetitive view of prehistoric life.
  6. See
    Men do exciting things. Racial evolution. Maddona with child. Dear on a stick. Women in lower body positions.
  7. Don't See
    Women do anything interesting. Old people alone. Men killing small animals. Women's faces. Women in dynamic motion. Women in the foreground.
  8. Direct Dating
    Date of object by dating
  9. Indirect Dating
    Date of object by association to direct date of another object
  10. Relative Dating
    Until 1950s. "younger than", "older than", "same age". Stratigraphy, index fossil concept (William Strata Smith), stylistic seriation, frequency seriation.
  11. Index Fossil Concept
    William "Strata" Smith. Forms of life change over time. Different fossils characterize different layers. Fossil directeurs i.e. "index artifacts" through style ex: stone tool changes.
  12. Stylistic Seriation
    Arrange objects based on shapes and style
  13. Frequency Seriation
    Number of objects you see at any given time will follow a battleship pattern.
  14. Absolute Dating
    Procedures that give actual ages to artifacts using fixed rate decays of radioactive material. 1950. Willard Libby with radiocarbon dating.
  15. Radiocarbon Dating
    Willard Libby. C14 due to cosmic radiation. 1/2 life is 5730. Longer dead means less C14. For organic things ex: shell, leather, bone, charcoal. 300-100,000 years.
  16. AMS Dating
    Accelerator mass spectrometry. Requires less material to date. Still relies on amount of C14. Used on Shroud of Turin.
  17. Potassium-Argon Dating
    Dates volcanic rock. Used relatively to date between layers dated >500,000 years
  18. Dating Gap
    100kya-500kya. AMS helps with this problem.
  19. Analogy
    If two classes of phenomenae are alike in one respect, they may be alike in other respects. Basis for all prehistoric recreations. Form of reasoning. Paradox: Archaeological record is in present. Its creator was in the past. Ex: Ethnographies, historical documents, diaries, letters
  20. Ethnography
    Study of a living culture to infer behavior of past. Ex: N!ai the story of a !Kung woman
  21. N!ai
    !Kung woman relocated to Tshum!kwi relocation camp
  22. Dr. Kathleen Cook
    Green Hills. Gossip in coffee groups important for leveling and maintaining egalitarian code of behavior. Cross-cutting ties means one person many relationships. Cheap information means everyone has all the same assumed knowledge.
  23. Pliocene
  24. Pleistocene
  25. Holocene
  26. Upper Paleolithic
  27. Middle Paleolithic
  28. Lower Paleolithic
  29. Gracile Australopithecines
    • ~450 cc
    • Skeletal remains, footprints (afarensis), possibly tools although none found at solely australo sites
    • Scavengers
    • Social organization: primate
    • A. africanus 3-2.2 mya Southern Africa Taung by Raymond Dart 1924
    • A. afarensis 4-3 mya Eastern Africa ex: Lucy @ Hadar, Ethiopia by Donald Johansen in 1973
  30. Robust Australopithecines
    • ~530 cc
    • Skelatal remains, possibly tools although none found at solely australo sites. However, oldest tool outdates earliest homo.
    • Scavengers
    • Social organization: primate
    • A. Robustus 2-1 mya Southern Africa
    • A. Boisei 2.2-1 mya Eastern Africa ex: Zinj @ FLK, Olduvai Gorge, Tz Candidate for H. sapien ancestor
  31. Bipedalism
    Frees hands, long-distance travel, body temperature.
  32. Homo habilis
    • 600-700 cc 1/2 Homo sapien
    • Candidate for H. sapien ancestor
    • "Handyman(person)"
    • Gona River, Ethiopia. DK & FLK, Olduvai. FxJj50, Koobi Fora, Kenya. Mental abilities for Oldowan tools, gather workable materials, remember flake angles, transport up to 10k.
    • Bone cutmarks, percussion marks, but also carnivore marks
    • Concentrations of stone and bone on landscape
    • Living floors?
    • Opportunistic scavenger or hunter? No big game
    • Band/camp or not?
  33. Homo erectus
    • ~1000 cc 2/3 of H. sapien
    • 1.8 mya-?
    • Candidate for H. sapien ancestor
    • Nariokotome Boy 1.6 mya @ West of Lake Turkana
    • Africa by 1.8mya, Eurasia (Dmanisi) 1.7, SW Asia (Ubeidiya) 1.7, Indonesia (Trinil) 1.6, China/N&S Asia (Zhoukoudian) 1.1
    • Acheulean hand axes and cleavers, bifacial, flaked, 2-3 step process
    • Hunters/scavengers, maybe some big game @ Daka, Ethiopia 1.1 mya and @ Ambrona & Torralba Spain 350kya.
    • Possible evidence for campsites/windbreaks
    • Fire? Chesowanja, Kenya 1.7 mya. Swartskrans, S Africa 1.3 mya. Zhoukoudian 500 kya.
    • No evidence of symbolic behavior. No intentional burials.
  34. Rob Blumenschine
    • Present day africa sites similar in ecology to back then.
    • Riperian Scavenging Model-scavange and store in trees
  35. Hunt vs Scavenge
    • Hunt: cut marks on meaty parts, fewer carnivore gnaw marks
    • Scavenge: cut marks on less meaty parts, frequent carnivore gnaw marks, partial less meaty skeletons
    • Late access: Binford
    • Early access: Bunn
  36. Food Sharing Hypothesis vs. Aperange
    • Home base. Evidence is high bone/tool count=return frequently=food sharing. Evolutionary pressure to increase society=increase tools/bonding
    • Ape Range. New nest everyday, feed as you go.
  37. Lewis Binford
    • Threat of large carnivores=no home base
    • Regarding Neanderthal tools: doing different things in different places
  38. Rick Potts
    Stone cache near sources like tubers
  39. Glynn Isaac
    Social activity. Home base with trees. Carnivores are overrated.
  40. Neanderthals
    Cold adapted & strong. Good stone tools for job. Ate lots of meat, veggies, seafood too. Good big game hunters. Rough lives die young. Some symbolism and burial present. Cannibals like us.
  41. Bordes
    Racist! Different stone tools are from different ethnicities.
  42. Dibble
    People dibbling away at stone tools more than others. Repairing old ones etc.
  43. Aurignacian
  44. Gravettian
    27-21kya Weird burials Venus Birds enter diet
  45. Solutrean
    21-16kya eyed needles
  46. Magdalenian
    16-11kya Reindeer people