FCS Test 3

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KThornton
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11644
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FCS Test 3
Updated:
2010-03-23 13:43:29
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functions
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body functions
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  1. Dietary Reference Intake (DRI)
    a set of nutritional reference values for the US and Canada that apply to healthy people
  2. 5 values used for DRI
    • estimated avg requirement (EAR)
    • recommended dietary allowance (RDA)
    • adequate intake (AI)
    • tolerable upper intake level (UL)
    • estimated energy requirement (EER)
  3. Healthy People 2010
    an agenda that emphasizes health promotion and disease prevention across the US by identifying goals and objectives that we hope to reach as a nation by 2010
  4. Dietary Guidelines for Americans
    a set of principles developed by US Dept of Ariculture and the US Dept of Health and Human SErvices to assist Americans in designing a healthful diet and lifestyle
  5. The nutitional labeling an education act passed in _____
    1990
  6. nutrition facts panel
    the label on a food package that contains the nutrition info required by the us food and drug administration
  7. another name for simple carbohydrates
    monosaccharides
  8. 3 simple carbs
    • glucose
    • fructose
    • galactose
  9. glucose
    blood, body cells
  10. fructose
    honey, syrups, fruits
  11. galactose
    from lactose, "milk sugar"
  12. another name for compound carbs
    disaccharides
  13. 2 compound carbs
    • sucrose
    • lactose
  14. sucrose
    sugar beets, sugar cane, fruits, vegetables, honey
  15. lactose
    milk, milk products
  16. another name for complex carbs
    polysaccharides
  17. 3 complex carbs
    • starch
    • cellulose
    • glycogen
  18. glycogen
    stored carbohydrate in animals
  19. for carbs: increase intake of nutrient-dense foods such as ______, vegetables, _______ _______, and low-fat dairy products
    • fruits
    • whole grains
  20. carbs: ___ to ___ % of total calories
    45 to 65
  21. carbs: at least ____ grams per day based on the avg min amount of glucose used by the brain
    130
  22. long term intake of carbs below 45% of calories can increase the risk of:
    • heart disease
    • type 2 diabetes
    • lack of ability to facilitate loss of weight
  23. primary functions of carbs
    provide energy to cells in the body, part. the brain, central nervous system, red blood cells, placenta and fetus and for muscle cells during anaerobic activity

    "spares" protein by providing a source of energy so that protein can be used for growth, maintenance, and repair

    provide fiber

    adds variety to diet
  24. Childhood obesity: early risk factors
    • adult morbidity and mortality
    • type 2 diabetes
    • coronary heart disease
    • osteoporosis
  25. ____ and ______ __________ taught at an early age may impact future obesity rates in children
    • diet
    • lifestyle strategies
  26. estimated that by 2010, ____ % of children and youth in the US will be obese if the trend is not reversed
    20
  27. children ages 2-11 are exposed to an avg of _____ ads per year that are food or activity related
    5600
  28. children have an exposure to an avg of ______ paid ads per year
    20,000
  29. 3 top food-related ad categories
    • 28% restaurants and fast foods
    • 24% desserts, sweets and snacks
    • 17% cereal
  30. Growth is defined as:
    an increase in physical size of the entire body OR an increase of any body part
  31. growth may occur by:
    • an increase in the number of cells
    • an increase in the size of individual cells
  32. nutrients most needed for growth periods are:
    • protein
    • minerals
    • water
  33. failure to meet nutrient needs for growth may result in:
    • a small-for-age child
    • decreased resistance to disease
    • poor utilization of food eaten
    • delays in expected physical and mental behavior
  34. 4 nutrient classes involved in regulating body functions
    • vitamins
    • minerals
    • proteins
    • water
  35. fat soluble vitamins
    • vitamin a
    • vitamin d
    • vitamin e
    • vitamin k
  36. water soluble vitamins
    • vitamin c
    • thiamin
    • riboflavin
    • niacin
    • pantothenic acid
    • vitamin b6
    • folacin
    • vitamin b12
    • biotin
  37. the primary vitamins involved in regulation of metabolism for the release of energy are:
    • thiamin
    • niacin
    • riboflavin
    • pantothenic acid
  38. vitamins that regulate body growth
    • vitamin a
    • vitamin c
    • vitamin d
  39. the process of making a compound by the union of simpler compounds or elements
    synthesis
  40. deoxyribonucleic acid; the substance in the cell nucleus that odes for genetically transmitted traits
    DNA
  41. ribonucleic acid; the nucleic acid that serves as messenger between the nucleus and the ribosomes where proteins are synthesized
    RNA
  42. accelerates a chemical reaction
    catalyzes
  43. vitamins that regulate neuromuscular function
    • vitamins b6
    • vitamin c
    • thiamin
    • niacin
    • vitamin b12
  44. vitamins that regulate blood formation
    • vitamin e
    • pantothenic acid
    • vitamin b6
    • folacin
    • vitamin b12
  45. minerals in energy metabolism
    • phosphorus
    • magnesium
    • iodine
    • iron
  46. minerals in cellular reproduction and growth
    • phosphorus
    • magnesium
    • zinc
  47. is necessary for both the storage and the release of the energy trapped in ATP
    magnesium
  48. functions as part of one of the key enzyme systems in the final stages of energy metabolism
    iron
  49. minerals that regulate neuromuscular function
    • sodium
    • potassium
    • calcium
    • magnesium
  50. minerals in blood formation
    • iron
    • copper
    • calcium
  51. porteins are the only class of nutrients that can perform all three general functions of nutrients:
    • build and repair body tissue
    • regulate body functions
    • provide energy
  52. defined as protein catalysts.
    enzymes
  53. special chemical substances produced by endocrine glads that influence and regulate certain body functions
    hormones
  54. water's regulations (6)
    • initial step of processing food for use by the body
    • food comp is changed during chem digestion through the breaking down of nutrient molecules
    • medium in which chem reactions take place
    • main transporting agent of the body
    • major comp of body secretions
    • major role in ridding the body of waste material
    • regulates body temp during changes in environ temp and activity related heat production
  55. the regulatory functions crucial to the normal growth and development of young children are:
    • energy metabolism
    • cellular reproduction and growth
    • bone growth
    • neuromuscular development and function
    • blood composition control
  56. vitamins needed for the production of red blood cells and hemoglobin are:
    • vitamin 3
    • pantothenic acid
    • vitamin b6
    • folacin
    • vitamin b12
  57. 3 minerals required for cellular reproduction and growth are
    • phosphorus
    • magnesium
    • zinc
  58. structural part of hemoglobin, important component of blood
    iron
  59. aids iron with absorption and in its being incorp. into hemoglobin
    copper
  60. necessary for production of substances to induce blood coagulation
    calcium
  61. transports oxygen
    hemoglobin
  62. prolonged inadequate or excessive intake of nutrients and/or calories required by the body
    malnutrition
  63. an inadequate intake of one or more required or essential nutrients
    undernutrition
  64. nutrient that must be provided in food because it cannot be synthesized by the body at a rate sufficient to meet the body's needs
    essential nutrient
  65. study of food and hot it is used by the body
    nutrition
  66. the components or substances that are found in food
    nutrients
  67. mineral nutrient; a major component of bones and teeth
    calcium
  68. class of nutrients used primarily for structural and regulatory functions
    protein
  69. measure of the nutritional values of food; used in nutrition labeling
    Percent DAily Values
  70. statements of reduced calories, fat, or salt on the food labels
    nutrition claims
  71. proteins that catalyze body functions
    enzymes
  72. a vitamin-containing substance required by certain enzymes before they can perform their prescribed function
    coenzymes
  73. a metric unit of weight; approx 1/28 of an ounce
    gram
  74. a metric unit of weight; appro 1/1000 of a gram
  75. minimum amount of energy needed to carry on the body processes vital to life
    basal metabolic rate
  76. energy required to digest, absorb, transport, and metabolize nutrients in food
    thermic energy of food
  77. the process by which complex nutrients in foods are changed into smaller units that can be absorbed and used by the body
    digestion
  78. the process by which the products of digestion are transferred from the intestinal tract into the blood or lymph or by which substances are taken up by the cells
    absorption
  79. all chemical changes that occur from the time nutrients are absorbed until they are built into body tissue or are excreted
    metabolism
  80. a polysaturated fatty acid, which is essential for humans
    linoleic acid
  81. one of the two polyunsaturated fatty acids that are recognized as essential for humans
    linolenic acid
  82. unsaturated fats that have been converted to a solid by a process of hydrogenation
    trans fats
  83. monounsaturated fatty acids; fatty acids that have one double hydrogen bond; nuts, avocados, and olive oil are high in this form of fat
    MUFAs
  84. polyunsaturated fatty acids; fatty acids that contain more than one bond that is not fully saturated with hydrogen
    PUFAs
  85. the organic building blocks from which proteins are made
    amino acids
  86. amino acids that are produced in the body
    nonessential amino acids
  87. amino acids that can only be obtained rom protein food sources
    essential amino acids
  88. protein that contains all essential amino acids in amounts relative to the amounts needed to support growth
    complete protein
  89. proteins that lack required amounts of one or more essential amino acids
    incomplete proteins
  90. proteins with offsettings missing amino acids; complementary proteins can be combined to provide complete protein
    complementary proteins
  91. a complete protein mix resulting from combining a small amount of a compelte protein with an incomplete protein to provide all essentail amino acids
    supplementary proteins
  92. inorganic chemical elemtnts that are required in the diet to support growth and repair tissue and to regulate body functions
    minerals
  93. a protein that forms the major constituent of connective tissuse, cartilage, bone, and skin
    collagen
  94. a state of being poisonous
    toxicity
  95. vitamins that are dissolved, transported, and stored in fat
    fat soluble vitamins
  96. vitamins that are dissolved and transported in water/fluids; cannot be stored
    water-soluble vitamins

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