bio13.txt

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Author:
itzlinds
ID:
116490
Filename:
bio13.txt
Updated:
2011-11-19 13:57:00
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Spinal Cord Nerves Somatic reflexs
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spinal cord, spinal nerves, and somatic reflexs
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  1. Describe the gross anatomical features of the spinal cord:
    • anatomical featues
    • cervical enlargement: gives rise to the nerves of the upper limbs
    • lumbar enlargemnt: gives rise to the nerves in the plevic region and lower limbs, medullary cone
    • cauda equina: resembles a horse's tail, innervates the pelvic organs and lower limbs
  2. Describe the fxn of the spinal cord:
    • conduction: sensory input and motor repsonse
    • neural intergration: example - full bladder, bladder control
    • locomotion: central pattern neurons(generators)
    • coordination: patterns, repetitive muscle contractions, example - walking
    • reflexs: involuntary response
  3. Describe the characteristics of the spinal cord:
    • pathway for messages from brain to PNS
    • length: foramen magnum to L1, 17'' long, 3/4'' in diameter
    • 31 pairs of spinal nerves
  4. Describe the organziation of the spinal meninges:
    • dura mater
    • epidural space
    • arachnoid mater
    • subarachnoid space
    • pia mater
  5. describe the structure of the spinal meninges:
    • dura: tough membrane
    • epidural space: blood vessels, adipose tissue, loose connective tissue
    • arachnoid: loose mesh of elastic fibers
    • subarachnoid space: CSF
    • pia: delicate, transparent membrane that closely follows contours of the spinal cord
  6. Describe the fxn of the spinal meninges:
    protection
  7. Describe the organization of gray matter in the spinal cord:
    looks like an H or a butterfly in cross sections

    • posterior (dorsal) horns
    • anterior (ventral) horns
    • central canal
    • posterior (dorsal) root
    • anterior (ventral) root
    • lateral horns
  8. Describe the organization of white matter in the spinal cord:
    consists of bundles of axons that course up and down the cord and provide communication with the CNS

    • 3 columns
    • posterior, lateral, anterior coulmn
  9. Distinguish between ascending and descending tracts in the spinal cord:
    • ascending tracts: PNS comes in , carries sensory information up the spinal cord
    • descending tracts: carries motor response, impulse down the spinal cord
  10. Describe the ascending tract on the basis of fxn and location:
    • origin: PNS receptors
    • destination: brain
    • neurons: 3 (1st order, 2nd order, 3rd order)

    • 1st order neuron: detects stimulus, transmits to spinal cord or brainstem
    • 2nd order neuron: brainstem to the thalamus (longest)
    • 3rd order neruon: from the thalamus to the cerebral cortex(primary somatosensory cortex - process body sneses)
  11. list the ascending tracts:
    • gracile fassciclus
    • cuneate fasiculus
    • spinothalamic
    • spinoreticular
    • spinocerebellar
  12. Describe the descending tract on the basis of fxn and location:
    • origin: brain
    • destination: effector (motor)
    • neurons: 2 upper, lower motor neuron

    • upper motor neuron: cerebral cortex to brainstem or spinal cord
    • lower motor neuron: from brainstem or spinal cord to the origin muscle
  13. list the descending tracts:
    • corticospinal
    • tectospinal
    • reticulospinal
    • vestibulospinal
  14. Describe poliomyelitis and how it affects the nervous system:
    • anterior horn of gray matter in spinal cord is inflammed, muscles do not innervate
    • muslce pain, weakness, atrophy (waste)
  15. describe ALS ( amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) and how it affects the nervous system
    • occurs in the white matter of the spinal cord, no muslce nourishment, and hardening of the arteries
    • degeneration/scarring of neuron tissue in lateral tracts of descending pathways (both upper/lower)

    symptoms: muscle astrophy, sensory pathways intact

    lou gehrig/stephan hawkins
  16. describe shingles and how it affects the nervous system:
    • chix pox virius lives in posterior root ganglion for life, if stressed re-emerges, travels down sensory nerve fibers to cause shingles
    • symptoms: painful, itchy sores, fluid filled vessicles along nerve pathway
  17. Near its attachment to teh spinal cord, a spinal nerve branches into a ________ and ______.
    • posterior (dorsal) root
    • anterior (ventral ) root
  18. a short distance away from the spinal cord, the posterior root swells into a ________, which contains the neuronsomas of sensory neruons.
    posterior root ganglion
  19. a mixed nerve carrying sensory singnals to teh spinal cord be way of the posterior root and ganglion, and motor signals out to more distant parts of the body:
    spinal nerve
  20. the spinal nerver brances apart as a mixed signals in the ramus, and go out to the extensions, list what the anterior ramus and posterior ramus innervates:
    • anterior ramus: either a plexus, or individual nerves anterior to the body
    • posterior ramus: only innervates individuals nerves posterior to the body
  21. a group of nerves that come together to preform a particular fxn is called:
    a plexus
  22. Name the cord level and the major nerve, and what it innervates of the cervical plexus:
    • cord level: C1-C5
    • major nerve: phrenic nerve
    • innervates: diaphram (breathing)
  23. Name the cord level and the major nerve, and what it innervates of the brachial plexus:
    • cord level: C5- T1
    • major nerve: musculocutaneous, axillary, radial, median, and ulnar
    • innervates: upper limbs (skin and muscle movements)
  24. Name the cord level and the major nerve, and what it innervates of the lumbar plexus:
    • cord level: L1-L4
    • major nerve: femoral nerve
    • innervates: the thigh (skin/muscle movements)
  25. Name the cord level and the major nerve, and what it innervates of the sacral plexus:
    • cord level: L4-S4
    • major nerve: sciatic nerve (tibial and common fibularis nerve)
    • innervates: lower limbs
  26. Explain what dermatomes are and describe their significance in the clinical world:
    • Dermatomes: area of skin innervated by spinal nerves (sensory)
    • significance: provides a body map, indicator of specific nerve damage, anesthetize 3 spinal nerves, to knock out a given dermatome sensation
  27. Define and discuss the properties and purpose of reflexes:
    • definition: a quick automatic response to stimuli
    • purpose: prevent injury, maintain homeostasis
    • properties: requires stimuliation, quick, involuntary response, sterotyped; predictable
  28. List the componets of a reflex arch:
    • Standard pathway
    • sensory receptor
    • affarent nerve fiber
    • integration center (spinal cord/brainstem)
    • efferent nerve fiber
    • muscle response
  29. describe what muscle spindles are and their contribution to somatic reflexes:
    • muscle spindles: stretch receptors, embedded in muscles, concentrated at the ends of muscles, near tendons
    • contribution: provides info about muscle length, stretch, sensitive to small/suddend changes
  30. give an example of stretch reflex and be able to outline the pathway and components of the reflex arch:
    • example: patella reflex, plantar flexion (calcaneal tendon stretch), forearm extension (triceps brachii)
    • pathway: (patellar reflex tendon stretch)
    • extensor muscle stretched
    • muscle spindle stimulated
    • primary afferent neruon excited
    • alpha motor nueron stimulate extensor muscle contraction
    • antagonist relaxes

    purpose: maintains equilibrium, posture, coordinated motions
  31. give an example of the flexor/crossed extension reflexes and be able to outline the pathway and components of each flex arc:
    • flexor characteristics: quick contractions from stimulus, leg flexion ispilateral (same side)
    • corss extension characteristics: contralateral extensors
    • example: center of gravity of balance
    • pathway:
    • stimulates pain receptors of right foot
    • sensory neuron activates multiple interneurons
    • ipsilateral motor neurons to flexor excited
    • ipsilateral flexor contracts
    • contralateral motor neruons to extensor excited
    • contralateral extensor contracts
  32. a reflex phenomenon that prevents muscles from working against each other by inhibiting antagonist is called:
    reciprocal inhibition
  33. the reflex arc in wich there is only one synapse between the afferent and efferent neuron, so little synpatic delay and a very prompt response is called:
    monosynaptic
  34. a reflex arc in which signals travel over many synapses on their way back to the muscles is called:
    polysynaptic
  35. the reflex arc in which the sensory input and motor output are on the same sides of the spinal cord is called:
    ipsilateral
  36. the reflex arc in which the input and output are on opposides sides is called:
    contralateral
  37. The nervous tissue that occupies L2 to S5 of the vertebral canal is called the:

    medullary cone
    cauda equina
    cervical enlargement
    lumbar enlargement
    cauda equina
  38. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is found in which of the following?

    pia mater
    epidural space
    terminal filum
    dura mater
    subarachnoid space
    subarachnoid space
  39. Which of the following is NOT classified as gray matter in the spinal cord?

    ventral horn
    anterior column
    gray commissure
    lateral horn
    dorsal horn
    anterior column
  40. When the destination and origin of a spinal tract decussate, they are referred to as:


    contralateral
    ipsilateral
    ascending tracts
    descending tracts
    contralateral
  41. Which of the following contains the somas of sensory neurons carrying signals to the spinal cord ?

    posterior horn
    ventral root
    dorsal root ganglion
    lateral horn
    ascending tract
    dorsal root ganglion
  42. The muscles of the forearm are innervated by nerves of the:

    brachial plexus
    antebrachial plexus
    lumbar plexus
    cervical plexus
    sacral plexus
    brachial plexus
  43. The phenomenon that prevents muscles from working against each other is known as:

    a monosynaptic reflex arc
    the tendon reflex
    the flexor reflex
    the stretch reflex
    reciprocal inhibition
    reciprocal inhibition
  44. Put the following protective layers in order from deep to superficial:

    arachnoid mater
    epidural space
    vertebrae
    pia mater
    dura mater
    subarachnoid space
    • pia mater
    • subarachnoid space
    • arachnoid mater
    • dura mater
    • epidural space
    • vertebrae
  45. The connective tissue surrounding a single neuron is called the:

    endoneurium
    arachnoid mater
    perineurium
    epineurium
    dura mater
    endoneurium
  46. Put the following events of the patellar tendon reflex in the correct order:

    alpha motor neuron stimulates extensor muscle contraction
    muscle spindle stimulated
    antagonist relaxes
    primary afferent neuron excited
    extensor muscle stretched
    • Extensor muscle stretched
    • Muscle spindle stimulated
    • Primary afferent neuron excited
    • Alpha motor neuron stimulates extensor muscle contraction
    • Antagonist relaxes
  47. In a recent football game against the Green Bay Packers, the opposing team's quarterback was hit in the thigh by Packer linebacker Clay Matthews, resulting in a fumble. Trace the pathway of the nerve signal from the quarterback's thigh to his spinal cord by putting the following structures in the correct order.

    spinal nerve
    spinal cord
    sciatic nerve
    anterior ramus
    posterior root
    sacral plexus
    posterior root ganglion
    • sciatic nerve
    • sacral plexus
    • anterior ramus
    • spinal nerve
    • posterior root ganglion
    • posterior root
    • spinal cord

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