Bio Geography

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ichiban2008
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116511
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Bio Geography
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2011-11-16 19:50:28
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bio geo evo
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Test 3
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  1. Dispersal

    Active/Passive
    the movement of an organism away from its point of origin

    active involves locomotion by the organism itself

    durring passive, the organism is transported by gravity, wind, water, or other organisms
  2. Jump Dispersal
    the dispersal of a species across a geographic area that is not occupied by the species
  3. Waif Dispersal
    successful long distance jump dispersal events

    overall, pretty rare, but with 10-100 million species on the planet, a "one in a million chance" does occur
  4. Sweepstakes Routes
    Geographic routes with low probability of successful dispersal

    overall, pretty rare, but with 10-100 million species on the planet, a "one in a million chance" does occur
  5. Diffusion
    the expansion of the range of a species along a discrete front
  6. Migration
  7. Anemochores
    organisms dispersed by wind
  8. Zoochores
    organisms dispersed by other organisms
  9. Corridor
    Geographic features that promote dispersal and colonization
  10. Filter
    avenues of dispersal and colonization that are not equally favorable for all species
  11. Super Tramp
    species that are particularly well suited to long distance dispersal and successful colonization
  12. Propagule
    the stage in the life cycle (a plant seed for example) part of an organism (a piece of marram grass which can develop a new set of roots and grow into a full sized grass plant), or group of organisms (a male and female rabbit of matting age) that is required to establish a new reproducing population

    EX) male/female (minimum requirement for pass on their genes)
  13. Stepping Stones
    chains of closely distributed islands or discrete areas of similar habitat, such as mountains surrounded by low elevation deserts, that aid in the dispersal of some species
  14. Establishment
    • Once you get to the island, you need to be able to
    • “establish” yourself

    Getting there isn’t good enough
  15. Fitness
  16. Evolution

    Micro/Marco
    Genetially controlled changes in physiology, anatomy, and behavior that occur to a clade over time.

    Micro refers to evolution at the scale of the species.

    Macro refers to evolutionary changes viewed at higher taxonomic units such as genera and families.
  17. Convergent Evolotion
    the development of similar morphological or physiological traits in unrelated species living in geographically seperated regions that have similar environments

    EX) Australia/Africa/U.S. rats

    • similar phenotype, completely different genotype
    • fill similar niche
    • similar phenotype due to similar niche in the similar environment
  18. Parallel Evolution
    occurs when geographically isolated populations derived from the same ancestor evolve into morphologically and physiologically similar descendent species

    EX) gecho in carribean

    • species from a common ancestor, and they fill same niches.
    • these evolve into different species, and jump dispersal since they cant have the same niche in the same environment
  19. Genetic Drift
    stochastic changes in the genetic composition of a population that occur over time as new genes arice via mutation and other genes are lost through change variations
  20. Natural Selection
    the process by which the genes for genetically controlled traits become more common in a poulation over time because individuals with those traits are reproductively more successful than other individuals.
  21. Phyletic Gradualism
    a slow and gradual process of evolution during which new taits arise by mutations and traits which infer greater reproductive success are selected for and eventually become dominant over many generations
  22. Punctuated Equilibria
    • a model of evolution in which new genotypes and species arise as small isolated populations or populations at the edges of the main species population.
    • These small populations increase and bery rapidly become dominant when environmental changes cuase them to be better adapted to new environment conditions
  23. Allopatric Speciation
    the formation of new species by geographic isolation
  24. Sympatric Speciation
    the development of new species within the same geographic area as the parent species
  25. Founder Principle
    the idea that populations founded by a very small number of indivuduals generaly contain a small subset of the total genetic variability of the main population and are prone to allopatric speciation
  26. Adaptive Radiation
    • the development of many species from a single founding species.
    • the new species evolve to occupy the different range of habitats and use the different resources that are present in the region in which adaptive radiation occurs.
  27. Vicariance Event
    geologic events or environmental changes that divide the ranges of species into geographically isolated distributions.
  28. Genotypic Variations
    nonobservable differnces in the genes between different species or members of the same species.
  29. Phenotypic Variation
    observable differences in the physiology, anatomy, or behavior of different species or individuals of the same species
  30. Extinction
    the loss of all individuals of a species, genus, family, or order.

    may be local or global
  31. Trophic Cascades
    occurs when the loss of an important prey species causes further evosystem disruptions and extinctions because of the loss of food for higher predators
  32. Red Queed Hypotheses
    states that because all of a species' competitors are continually evolving and becoming more competitive, if a species cannot evolve quickly enough to keep pace with the evolution of competing species, it will become extinct
  33. Great American Exchange
    the movement of terrestrial fauna that occurred following the establishment of the Isthmus of Panama
  34. Cosmopolitan
    having a global geographic distribution
  35. Provincialialism
    having only a few geographic distributions
  36. Biographic Line
    a geographic boundary dividing beographic regions
  37. Biographic Realm
    supercontinental areas taht contaim similar flora and fauna
  38. Biographic Region
    continental and superconitnental areas that contain similar flora and fauna
  39. Biographic Province
    subcontinental areas that contain similar flora and fauna
  40. Charles Darwin
    Book
  41. Charles Darwin
    Didn’t believe in evo before the beagle

    Invited onto the beagle as the ships naturalist, but also to hang with the capt

    Jumping from one port to the next, collecting data

    Gets to the Galapagos

    Finds different this and that on the same islands, and on different this and that on different islands

    Darwin didn’t write down where he found the finches at lol

    GEOGRAPHY mattered!!!!

    Became a geographer eventually
  42. Alfred Wallace
    Book
  43. Alfred Wallace
    Alfred Wallace was the first to see variation

    When collecting his insects, he would get more than one.

    Did it to sell for money, not cause he didn’t believed in species topology;

    Darwin got only one cause of species topology (collect one, collect all)

    Starts to believe in evolution

    Sends his idea about evolution to Darwin;

    Darwin was like, WTF!! hahahahaha

    Some loser just selling crap for money could steal his thunder

    Each present a paper

    Darwin released his book the next year, while Wallace was still in Malaysia hahahaha sucker!!!!!
  44. Transition Zone Between Definitions and Essay Questions
  45. Define Evolution. What is fitness and natural selection? Compare and Contrast macro and micro evolution with examples.
    evolution is genetially controlled changes in physiology, anatomy, and behavior that occur to a clade over time

    clade is the lineage of different related species that arise from a common ancestor

    Micro refers to evolution at the scale of the species

    Macro refers to evolutionary changes viewed at higher taxonomic units such as genera and families

    natural selection is the process by which the genes for genetically controlled traits become more common in a poulation over time because individuals with those traits are reproductively more successful than other individuals

    • micro evolution EX)
    • mosquitoes evolving resistance to DDT
    • whiteflies evolving resistance to pesticides
    • gonorrheal bacteria strains evolving resistance to penicillin
    • HIV strains evolving resistance to antiviral medicines

    macro evolution EX)
  46. What genetic effects lead to speciation?

    Compare and Contrast allopatric and sympatric speciation
    Genetic effects that lead to speciation include: Variation

    • Variation comes from mutation
    • Comes from parents
    • allopatric speciation is the formation of new species by geographic isolation

    sympatric speciation is the development of new species within the same geographic area as the parent species
  47. What are the major causes of extinction?

    What are some types of extinction?

    What are species rick factors?
    The top three man made reasons for extinction include habitat loss, exotic species, and explotation.

    Some types of extinction include deforestation and isolation/fragmentation

    Deforestation

    Whatever habitat you had there is gone

    Less biodiversity

    Fewer resources

    More competition

    Fewer large animals (trophic pyramid)

    Insects the same, but after that, forget it

    Huge reduction as you go down in size

    Isolation

    Areas in between areas of forest become like barriers causing no jump dispersal

    This process is called fragmentation

    Large forest being broken up into smaller fragments

    Species Risk Factors (if you are this, you are more at risk to go extinct)

    More specialized

    Low genetic variability

    Cant adapt to changes

    Size

    Need more food if you are bigger

    Carnivore even worse cause there are bunch of animals below you than just a herbivore that eats the very botton of the trophic pyramid (plants)

    Low reproduction cycle

    If you only have offspring once every 5 years, you will be more at risk of going extinct than if you have 100 offspring every year

    Abiotic Factors

    Changes that are non living

    Storms

    Climate change

    Fires
  48. Compare and contrast active and passive dispersal.

    Include examples of mechanisms used and range expansion
    • active involves locomotion by the organism itself.
    • during passive, the organism is transported by gravity, wind, water, or other organisms

    a great example of range expansion is cheat grass. cheat grass was accidentily introduced into NorthWestern America (started off in only the state of Washington), and through a series of jump dispersal, aided by passive dispersal of its seeds in feed and with live stock, it spread throughout the west (Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California, Nevada, Utah)
  49. Compare and contrast a corridor and a filter dispersal route.

    What types of barriers to dispersal create filters?
    a corridor is a Geographic features that promote dispersal and colonization

    a filter is an avenue of dispersal and colonization that is not equally favorable for all species

    Barrirs leading to filters.......

    Can be physical or ‘psychological’

    Psychological meaning:

    Barrier a species can pass, but choses not to

    EX) Small rodent will go the long way that is covered than go the fast way that is not

    Corridor

    A potential dispersal route that is not limited in any way

    Everything in ‘zone a’ can get to ‘zone b’

    Central America is NOT a corridor because some make it and some don’t; to be a corridor, all would have to be able to make it

    today, geographers try to create a corridor for animals; very hard to do

    need the right habitat

    need lots of space

    need multiple life cycles

    one makes it this far, the next generation makes it further, etc

    in the real world, there are NO corridors; instead, we have FILTERS; filtering out some animals

    EX) island jumping

    only way to get pass the filter of water is jump dispersal (the water is the filter, filtering it, to where some animals make it and some dont)

    in some cases, plants use wind/birds to carry seeds

    how do animals get there?

    Swim

    frogs catch rides as well

    Duck lands in a pond

    Pick up water, in the water is eggs
  50. What is required for success of dispersal after arrival?

    What aspects are involved?
    Odds are way against you due to new habitat

    As you get further away from home, the number of those that make it drop FAST; meaning less biodiversity

    Success upon arrival is so low that some routes are called 'sweepstakes routes"; meaning the chance of success is the same chance as somone winning the lottery or sweepstakes

    The best way for a species to survive include being eury everything...euryhaline (saline), euryphagous (food), eurythermic (temp)...the more wide their range is, the better they will be able to adapt into a new environment
  51. What weedy characteristics make invasive species good at dispersal and establishment?
  52. How are realms, regions, lines, provinces identified and classified in biogeography?
  53. Compare and contrast endemism and cosmopolitanism

    Which is more uncommon and why?
    Endeminism is when a species, genera, or family is restricted to one or a few geographic regions

    Cosmopolitanism is when a species, genera, or family has a global geographic distribution

    In general, endemism is the common state for land plants and animals, while true cosmopolitians are rare.

    cosmos rare because:

    • eury in every category is very hard to do
    • generalist able to survive in many areas
    • good competitors and colonizers
  54. DISPERSAL

    Figure 8.4
    • top one:
    • seed being dispersed by wind
    • most seeds (500) are being dispersed close to parent
    • number of seeds droped drops dramatically from about 10-50 meters
    • once hit 50 meters, only about 40 seeds are being dropped, and once you hit 100 meters, only about 10 are being dropped
    • bottom one:
    • seed being dispersed by an animal
    • about 80% of seeds are being dropped at 0-20 meters
    • number drops dramatically from 20-50 meters
    • only about 10 percents of seeds are droped past 50 meters, and only about 5 percent of seeds are dropped past 100 meters

    Outcome:

    difference isn’t really huge

    most are falling near parent

    doesn’t really change whether it is caused by wind or animals

    hard for jay to fly a long way while carrying a nut

    also, the further you get from home, the more the environment is going to change

    TIPPING POINT is around 50 meters for both with only a tiny portion transported more than 100 meters away
  55. JUMP DISPERSAL AND RANGE EXPANSION

    Figure 8.8
    House Finch and Jump Dispersal

    Introduced to Long Island

    spread from Massachusetts to North Carolina

    slowly diffusing over time through jump dispersal and the establishment of small disjunct (distinct) populations in advance of the main diffusion front

    home still the same place, just migrating out further

    Don’t go from one place to one right next to it; it 'jumps' to a further one away
  56. ADAPTATIONS

    Figure 9.1
    Yarrow Plants

    they grow from a near sea level (0 meters lol) to elvations of over 3600 meters!!!!!

    • tall in the lowlands (70cm)
    • small in the highlands (20cm)

    low stature allows them to survive at high elevations because it keeps the flowering heads protected from frostbite and closer to the warm ground surface

    height decreasing with elevation

    drop in elevation causes higher height, just not as tall as original

    What causes the difference? Is it the genotype or phenotype (the environment)?

    Only one way to find out:

    Plant the seeds somewhere else

    If you move it to the west or east and it’s the same size, genotype (moved it to a different geographic location and nothing changed...must be the genotype)

    If you move it to the west or east and it changes, phenotype (environment) (could still be genotype as well, but you do know now that the environment has the ability to change it as well ;)

    Answer in this case is a little bit of both; big chunk was pheno though; when they transported the small ones to lower elevation, they stayed around 20 cm
  57. ADAPTATIONS

    Figure 9.7
    Adaptive Radiation

    def of AR --> the development of many species from a common ancestor to fill all of the available niches in the colonized region

    utilize different niches to take advantage of different foods

    all evolved from same ancestor

    in order to survive, they evolved different niches

    fish eat on separate food

    different mouth mutation

    • small mouth for zooplankton
    • sharp mouth for picking invertebrates off vegetation

    birds eat on different flowers

    different beak mutation

    • small, thick beak for eating fruit and seeds
    • sharp beaks for prying bark apart to find insects
    • long slender beak to obtain nectar

    if optimum range becomes bad range:

    opt range def --> Range where most of the species stay dut to some geographic limiting factor

    Some natural phenomena changes the optimum range into an unlivable range

    You either get extinction, move to the sides, or two completely different optimum ranges

    Showed pic in class, but not in book...WTF!!!!!

    Darwin’s finches:

    Short beak lives on this island

    Med beak lives on this island

    Large beak lives on this island

    All three can spread out on the entire island, but dont so neither go extinct

    Short/med beak lives on this island

    All beaks lives on this island

    These two scenarios break up the land on their islands
  58. REALMS

    Figure 8.1
  59. REALMS

    Figure 10.1

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