Social Psychology terms Exam 2(book)

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denali1316
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Social Psychology terms Exam 2(book)
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2011-11-13 18:51:34
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social psychology terms (book)
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  1. Natural selection
    the evolutionary process by which inherited traits that best enable organisms to survive and reproduce in particular environments are passed to ensuing generations
  2. evolutionary psychology
    the study of the evolution of cognition and behavior using principles of natural selection
  3. culture
    the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
  4. norms
    standards for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior
  5. personal space
    the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies. its size depends on our familiarity with whoever is near us
  6. gender
    in psychology, the characteristics, whether biological or socially influenced, by which ppl define male and female
  7. empathy
    the vicarious experience of another's feelings, putting oneself in another's shoes
  8. aggression
    physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone
  9. androgynous
    mixing both masculine and feminine characteristics
  10. gender role
    a set of behavior expectations(norms) for males and females
  11. interaction
    a relationship in which the effect of one factor (such as biology) depends on another factor ( such as environment)
  12. conformity
    a change in behavior or belief as the result of real or imagined group pressure
  13. compliance
    conformity that involves publicly acting in accord with an implied or explicit request while privately disagreeing
  14. obedience
    acting in accord with a direct order or command
  15. acceptance
    conformity that involves both acting and believing in accord with social pressure
  16. autokinetic phenomenon
    self motion, the apparent movement of a stationary point of light in the dark ex. sherif's spot of light experiment
  17. cohesiveness
    a "we feeling" the extent of which members of a group are bound together such as by attraction for one another
  18. normative influence
    conformity based on a person's desire to fulfill others' expectations, often to gain acceptance
  19. informational influence
    conformity occuring when people accept evidence about reality provided by other people
  20. reactance
    a motive to protect or restore one's sense of freedom
  21. persuasion
    the process by which a message induces change in beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors
  22. central route
    occurs when interested ppl focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
  23. peripheral route
    occurs when ppl are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness
  24. credibility
    believability, a credible communicator is perceived as both expert and trustworthy
  25. sleeper effect
    a delayed impact of a message that occurs when an initially discounted message become effective, as we remember the message but forget the reaction for discounting it
  26. attractiveness
    having qualities that appeal to an audience
  27. primacy effect
    other things being equal, information presented first usually has the most influence
  28. recency effect
    information presented last sometimes has the most influence
  29. channel of communication
    the way the message is delivered- whether face-to-face, in writing, on film, or in some other way
  30. two-step flow of communication
    the process by which media influence often occurs through opinion leaders, who in turn influence others
  31. need for cognition
    the motivation to think and analyze
  32. cult (also called new religious movement)
    a group typically characterized by 1. distinctive ritual and beliefs related to its devotion to a god or a person, 2. isolation form the surrounding "evil" culture, 3. a charismatic leader
  33. attitude inoculation
    exposing ppl to weak attacks upon their attitudes so that when stronger attacks come, they will have refutations available
  34. group
    two or more ppl who for longer than a few moments, interact with and influence one another and perceive one another as "us"
  35. co-actors
    co-participants individually on a noncompetitive activity
  36. social facilitation
    1. original meaning: the tendency of ppl to perform simple or well-learned tasks better when others are present 2. current meaning: the strengthening of dominant responses in the presence of others
  37. evaluation apprehension
    concern for how others are evaluating us
  38. social loafing
    the tendency for ppl to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when they are individually accountable
  39. free riders
    ppl who benefit from the group but give little in return
  40. deindividuation
    loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension, occurs in group situations that foster responsiveness to group norms, good or bad
  41. group polarization
    group-produced enhancement of members' preexisting tendencies, a strengthening of the members' average tendency, not a split within the group
  42. social comparsion
    evaluating one's opinions and abilities by comparing oneself with others
  43. pleuristic ignorance
    a false impression of what most other ppl are thinking or feeling, or how they are responding
  44. groupthink
    "the mode of thinking that ppl engage in when concurrence-seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive in-group that it tends to override realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action"
  45. minority slowness effect
    a tendency for ppl with minority views to express them less quickly than ppl in majority
  46. leadership
    the process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group
  47. task leadership
    leadership that organizes work, sets standards, and focuses on goals
  48. social leadership
    leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support

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