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  1. gastroenterologist
    a physician who specializes in stomach or intestinal diseases
  2. proctologist
    a physician with a specialization of rectal disease
  3. oncologist
    a physician with a specialization of cancer
  4. hepatobiliary specialist
    a physician with a specialization of liver disease
  5. internal medicine
    the area within a hospital that treats digestive disorders
  6. aphagia
    inability to swallow
  7. ascites
    an accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity, a symptom of liver dysfunction
  8. constipation
    reduced peristalsis in the large intestine resulting in infrequent or incomplete defecation
  9. diarrhea
    a fresuent discharge of water fecal material which may be caused by an improper diet, but more commonly by infection of virus, bacteria, or protozoa; it can lead to severe dehydration
  10. dyspepsia
  11. dysphagia
    difficulty in swallowing
  12. flatus
    a condition of gas trapped in the GI tract or released through the anus
  13. gastrodynia
    pain in the stomach
  14. halitosis
    bad breath
  15. hematemesis
    vomiting blood
  16. hepatomegaly
    enlargement of the liver
  17. hyperbilirubinemia
    excessive levels of the bile pigment bilirubin in the blood
  18. jaundice
    a yellowish staining of the skin
  19. nausea
    from the latin and greek word for seasickness, a symptomatic urge to vomit; it may be abbreviated N&V
  20. reflux
    a backward flow of material in the GI tract, or regurgutation
  21. steatorrhea
    abnormal fat levels in the feces
  22. adhesion
    an abnormal growth connecting two surfaces, which may arise as a complication to healing after surgery
  23. aanorexia nervosa
    a personality disorder characterized by an extreme aversion to food that results in weight loss and malnourushment
  24. appendicitis
    inflammation of the appendix
  25. bulimia
    an eating disorder involving repeated gorging with food that is followed by induced vomiting or laxative abuse; commonly known as "binging and purging"
  26. cheilitis
    inflammation of the lip
  27. cholangioma
    a tumor orginating from a bile duct, usually from within the liver
  28. cholecystitis
    inflammation of the gallbladder
  29. choledocholithiasis
    presence of mineralized masses, called gallstones or stones, in the common bile duct where they block bile flow
  30. cholelithiasis
    generalized condition of gallstones
  31. cirrhosis
    a chroni, progressive disease resulting from hepatic cell failure, which may by caused by chronic alcoholism or viral infection
  32. colitis
    inflammation of the colon
  33. colorectal cancer
    cancer of the colon and rectum, which often originates as a polyp to become an aggressice, metastatic tumor
  34. crohn's disease
    Chronic inflammation of any part of the GI tract, most commonly of the ileum, that involves small ulcerations of the intestinal wall, resulting in scar tissue formation and intestinal obstruction
  35. Diverticulitis
    Inflammation of abnormal small pouches in the wall of the colon (called diverticula)
  36. Diverticulosis
    Condition of diverticula in the colon
  37. Duodenal ulcer
    An ulcer in the wall of the duodenum
  38. Dysentery
    Severe inflammation of the intestine marked by frequent diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and dehydration; it is usually caused by infection by bacteria or protozoa
  39. Enteritis
    Inflammation of the small intestine
  40. Esophagitis
    Inflammation of the esophagus
  41. Gastric cancer
    Cancer of the stomach, also called stomach carcinoma
  42. Gastric ulcer
    An ulcer in the wall of the stomach
  43. Gastritis
    Inflammation of the stomach
  44. Gastroenteritis
    Inflammation of the stomach and small intestine
  45. Gastroenterocolitis
    Inflammation of the stomach, small intestine, and colon
  46. Gastroesophageal reflux disease
    Recurring backflow of stomach contents into the esophagus as a result of a weakened lower esophageal sphincter, producing burning pain, abbreviated GERD
  47. Gastromalacia
    Softening of the stomach wall
  48. Giardiasis
    Infection of the intestinal protozoa Giardia intestinalis or G. lamblia, producing symptoms of diarrhea, cramps, nausea, and vomiting
  49. Gingivitis
    Inflammation of the gums
  50. Glossitis
    Inflammation of the tongue
  51. Glossopathy
    Generalized disease of the tongue
  52. Hemorrhoids
    A varicose (swollen) condition of veins in the anus that results in painful swellings
  53. Hepatitis
    Inflammation of the liver
  54. Hepatoma
    Tumor of the liver
  55. Hiatal hernia
    Protrusion of part of the stomach upward through an opening in the diaphragm normally penetrated by the esophagus, known as the esophageal hiatus
  56. Ileitis
    Inflammation of the ileum
  57. Ileus
    An obstruction of the intestine; symptoms include pain, vomiting, and often fever and dehydration
  58. Inflammatory bowel disease
    A syndrome affecting the intestines and characterized by a wide range of symptoms and conditions ranging from periodic diarrhea and flatus to ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease; abbreviated IBD
  59. Inguinal hernia
    Protrusion of a loop of the small intestine through the abdominal wall in the inguinal (groin) region; a direct inguinal hernia occurs among males and is a protrusion into the scrotal cavity
  60. Intussusception
    An infolding of a segment of the intestine within another segment
  61. Irritable bowel syndrome
    A chronic disease characterized by periodic disturbances of large intestinal (bowel) function, such as diarrhea and constipation, without clear physical damage; abbreviated IBS, attacks are characterized by abdominal pain caused by accumulation of gas and intestinal muscle spasms
  62. Lactose intolerance
    A lack of the enzyme lactase in the small intestine, producing symptoms of gas production and diarrhea when dairy foods are consumed
  63. Palatitis
    Inflammation of the palate
  64. Pancreatitis
    Inflammation of the pancreas
  65. Parotitis
    Inflammation of the parotid gland; also called mumps
  66. Peptic ulcer
    An erosion in the wall of the stomach (gastric ulcer), duodenum (duodenal ulcer), or any other part of the GI tract that may be exposed to gastric juice, that is usually due to a reduction of the protective mucus layer; about 80% of peptic ulcers are correlated to an infection from Helicobacter pylori
  67. Peritonitis
    Inflammation of the peritoneum
  68. Polyp
    Any abnormal mass of tissue that projects outward from a wall; they are usually benign growths that may occur in the nose, throat, and intestine
  69. Polyposis
    Presence of many polyps, usually in the colon or rectum, which poses a high level of risk for malignancy
  70. Proctitis
    Inflammation of the rectum and anus
  71. Proctoptosis
    Prolapse of the rectum
  72. Rectocele
    Protrusion of the rectum, also called proctocele
  73. Sialoadenitis
    Inflammation of a salivary gland
  74. Sialolith
    Mineralized object, or stone, in a salivary gland
  75. Stomatitis
    Inflammation of the mouth
  76. Strangulated hernia
    A hernia that is constricted, which reduces blood flow to the organ; if early intervention does not occur, the organ may develop gangrene
  77. Umbilical hernia
    A protrusion of a loop of the intestine through the abdominal wall in the umbilical region
  78. Uvulitis
    Inflammation of the uvula
  79. Volvulus
    A twisting of the intestine that leads to obstruction
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