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  1. Nutrient
    A chemical substance found in foods that is essential to life
  2. Six Groups of Nutrients
    • Carbohydrates (CHO)
    • Fats
    • Proteins
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
    • Water
  3. Carbohydrates (CHO)
    Fats & Lipids
    • Provide energy & heat for the body
    • have calories/calorie value
  4. Proteins
    • Primary function: Build & repair body tissue
    • Secondary function: Provide heat & energy for the body
  5. Vitamins & Minerals
    • Primary: Regulate body processes
    • Secondary: Help proteins build & repair
  6. Water
    Regulates body processes
  7. A balanced diet includes:
    All 6 groups of nutrients and calories in amounts that preserve and promote good health
  8. Nutrition
    The result of processes whereby the body takes in and uses food for growth, development, and maintainance of health.
  9. Normal way to get food into our bodies?
    • Take in food by our mouths
    • Chew & swallow
    • Digest food
    • Absorb nutrient into bloodstream
  10. When we digest our foods:
    • CHO becomes simple sugars (glucose)
    • Fats become fatty acids and glycerol (glycerides) {hardest to digest}
    • Proteins become amino acids
  11. Major influences on what and why we eat:
    • Hunger {the physical need for food. Blood sugar goes down, brain senses that & triggers hunger sensation & then you ate}
    • Appetite {the psychological desire for food based on pleasant memories}
    • Social Life {family sunday dinners, dates, holidays, peer pressure can make people eat more or less}
    • Culture & Religion {at least one major carbohydrate that is the staple of a country}
    • Lifestyle {whether you frequent restaurants or not, couponing means more likely to eat unhealthy}
  12. Nutritional status
    Persons physical condition as determined by diet underweight, overweight, obesity, iron deficiency etc
  13. Characteristics of malnutrition
    Over/under-consumption of food, vitamins & minerals
  14. Nutrtional deficiency
    Can lead to mental retardation & death
  15. Primary nutritional deficiency
    Inadequate (too little) nutrient intake
  16. Secondary nutritional deficiency
    • Caused by something other than consumption of food. (inadequate intake) Crohn's disease can't absorb nutrients in intestines
    • Medications that destroy nutrient absorption or nutrients themselves
  17. Nutritional density
    • Nutrient value of food compared to calories in food
    • Low density- mostly carbs (often sugars) low in vits & mins (except sodium) & proteins
  18. Healthcare provider (MD) sets the Diet order
    Dietician important in implementing diet & education of patients
    What is the Role of the Nurse in regards to nutrition?
    • Must have knowledge of sound nutrition
    • Modifies diet with the dietician
    • Feeds, assists with feeding, delegates feeding of patients
    • Answers patients' basic nutrition questions
    • Knows the relationship of foods and meds
    • Knows the characteristics of good & poor nutrition
    • Can implement better nutrition for self and family
  19. U.S. Dept. Of Agriculture & US Dept. of Health and Human Services
    Develops and revises a simpler system to help Americans with promoting health and healthful diets
  20. There are 2 parts of the system to help Americans have healthy diets
    • 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans
    • Choose My Plate
  21. Nutritional Assessment consists of?
    • Checking Ht, Wt, head (child) upper arm skinfold
    • Signs & Symptoms of deficiency disease
    • Biochem tests
    • Education of food habits
  22. Current food labeling
    Mostlikely to be deficient in vitamin A & C, calcium & Iron that's why they are listed
  23. Health Claims
    Must have at least 10% of a particular nutrient to be able to claim it is a "healthy item"
  24. Meanings of "Free" and "Lite"
    • Doesn't mean zero calories, there can be up to 5 calories to be called "free".
    • Lite there is no government standard for this label. It could literally just mean that it's a lighter color green now than it was before.
  25. Types of Vegetarians
    • Vegetarians-No red meat
    • Lacto-ovo-vegetarian/will eat milk & eggs but no meat
    • Lacto-vegetarians/will drink milk but no meat or animal products
    • Vegans-No animal products at all. Vegans who do it right are some of the healthiest people.
  26. Planning a healthy diet with Balanced Nutrients
    • Could use D.R.I.'s
    • Simpler system by dept. of Agriculture & US dept of Health & Human Services
    • Dietary guidelines for Americans
    • My plate
  27. Carbohydrates
    • Made up of
    • C=Carbon
    • H=Hydrogen
    • O=Oxygen
  28. Functions:
    • Primary= provides energy and heat (1g CHO=4kcal) Kilo-calories
    • Spares protein-proteins contain Nitrogen. Nitrogen allows for growth & repair
    • Required for normal fat metabolism- Can go into acidosis, w/o enough carbs hard for body to burn fat, left with acid wastes
    • Provides fiber, bulk for normal digestion
  29. CHO Food sources
    • Plant: cereal grains,vegetables, fruits, nuts, sugar
    • Animal: milk {has milk sugar (lactose) many people who are intolerant to it.It is not an allergic reaction, it is intolerance regardless of percentage of milk-fat}
  30. Recommended Daily intake of nutrients for adults 19 & older
    • 45-65% CHO
    • 10-35% Protein
    • 20-35% Fat
    • Less than 10% Saturated Fat
  31. Classification
    1.Monosaccharides:simple or single sugars, easily digested
    • a.glucose (dextrose) sugar in body, not sweet
    • b.fructose sweet, in fruits & vegetables, honey
    • c.galactose in milk, hitches to glucose, body splits it apart turns it into glucose
  32. Classification:
    Disaccharides: double sugars, must be broken down into single sugars to be absorbed into the body
    • a.sucrose All forms of sugar (table sugar,sugar cane, molasses, sugar beets)
    • b.maltose intermediate breakdown product of starch (ingredient in Beer & some baby formula)
    • c.lactose milk sugar (deficient in enzyme called lactase causes lactose intolerant)
  33. Classification
    Polysaccharides: complex carbohydrates, must be broken down into double then single sugars to be absorbed into the body
    • a.starch big molecules, all grains, potatoes,winter squash, sweet potatoes, peas, yams
    • b.other polysaccharides are:
    • glycogen: storage form of CHO in the body/Animals stored in liver as glycogen. Muscles
    • fiber or roughage: cellulose a major source (human body not able to break this down)
    • Water Soluble vs Fat Soluble fiber fat soluble fiber doesn't dissolve in water, water soluble escorts cholesterol out of body. {all fiber helps lower blood sugar level}
    • Nonfood: pectin, Metamucil, Citracel 20-35mg/daily fiber may be helpful in preventing colon cancer. Help prevent hemorrhoids. Softens & increases size of stool.
  34. Too Few CHO can result in:
    • Weight loss and fatigue
    • Serious defiency can result in ketoacidosis {built up acid end products}
    • Too little fiber can lead to constipation
  35. Too many CHO
    • Can lead to obesity
    • can lead to tooth decay
    • too much fiber can lead to flatulence and diarrhea with decreased appetite for other nutrients
  36. Sugar subsitutes:
    • Aspartame (in Nutrisweet) sweet but no calories, some people born unable to digest. PKU phenylketonuria. Can cause Headaches & seizures
    • Saccharin (in Sweet and Low) cancer causing in rats given 1,000X their body weight
    • Sucralose (in Splenda) American Diabetic Association endorses
    • Stevia (in Truvia) New in USA comes from natural source
    • Bulk natural sugar substitutes (xylitol, lactitol, sorbitol)
    • Sugar alcohols
  37. Fats:
    are nutrients, they are oily, not soluble in water, and made up of C,H, & O
  38. Functions of fats
    • Primary: provides energy and heat (1g fat= 9kcals)
    • Spares protein
    • Carries essential fatty acids and fat soluble vitamins (vitamins A,D,E, and K)
    • Provides flavor and satiety
    • Protects organs and bones
    • Insulation from cold
  39. Food sources of fats
    • Animal: meat especially fatty meat, skin on poultry, milk (but not skim milk), butter, cheeses, egg yolks {almost entirely fat} fatty fish (eg tuna,salmon)
    • Plant:cooking oils, margarine, nuts, avocados, coconut, chocolate
    • Buter/Margarine=same calories
  40. Fats in foods may be:
    • visible=able to be seen, purchased and used as fats
    • invisible=hidden
Card Set:
2011-11-14 04:29:20
Nutrition intro CHO Fats Lipids

Science & Nutrition
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