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Fatty acid synthesis occurs where?
In what tissues?
- Liver, kidney, brain, mammary gland, and adipose tissue
Primary building block?
Acetyl CoA, but no transporters to bring out of mitochondria
How does Acetyl CoA get out of mitochondrion?
In the form of citrate
How does acetyl coA get into the mitochondrion?
Pyruvate and produces 1 NADPH in the process
When cell is rich in ATP TCA is ____ and what builds up and exits the cell?
Only 6/14 NADPH come from Pentose Phosphate Pathway, where do other 8 come from?
8 NADPH produced from moving 8 molecules acetyl CoA out of mitochondria
Acetyl CoA Carboxylase uses what as a cofactor?
How many NADPH are needed to add 2 Carbons to a fatty acid?
Hormones regulate carboxylases by...
Acetyl CoA carboxylases regulated through
Tridosan inhibits reduction leading to
Eicosanoid hormones are derived from
Anabolic synthesis occurs when cells have...
enough energy to share
- date rape drug
- liquid ecstasy
Long chain and unsaturated fatty acid synthesis:
- Occurs in cytoplasm
- Catalyzed by enzymes bound to cytoplasmic side of smooth ER
Delta 9 Desaturase
add double bond!
head to tail arrangement of monomers 1/2 one with 1/2 of the other--produced simultaneously.
- Leads to Fatty Liver
Lipids to be synthesized
- Storage lipid: Triacylglycerol
- Membrane lipids: phospholipids and sphingolipids
- cholesterol: membrane component and steroid precursor
Phosphatidate is a common precursor for:
Triacylglycerol and Phospholipids
CDP-DAG + inositol
CDP-DAG + choline
CDP-DAG + ethanolamine
- fatty acid
- phosphoric acid
- (made from ceramide)
- Fatty Acid
- Inability to degrade ganglioside
- Enzyme deficient N-acetylhexosaminidase
Synthesis of Cholesterol
- 1. Biosynthesis of Mevalonate for Acetyl CoA
- 2. Formation of Isoprenoid units from Mealonate (5 C molecule)
- Endoplasmic Reticulum
- 3. Six isoprenoid units form squalene (30 C linear)
- 4. Squalene cyclized to lanosterol
- 5. Lanosterol converted to cholesterol (27 C)
Formation of Mevalonate requires?
- 2 Acetyl CoA and 2 NADPH
- regulated by HMG-CoA reductase
HMG-CoA reducatase can be inhibited by?
- Cholesterol and Mevalonate
- Listed Low Density to High Density
- Low Protien to High Protein
- High fat and size to low fat and size
Cholesterol Precursor for
Steroid hormones like Glucocorticoids, Mineralocorticoids, androgens
High testosterone levels
Low Vitamin D in children
Low viatmin D in Adults
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