Lipid Synthesis

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Author:
ANVigil
ID:
116574
Filename:
Lipid Synthesis
Updated:
2011-11-13 22:57:42
Tags:
Biochem Test
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Description:
Biochem Test 4
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  1. Fatty acid synthesis occurs where?
    In what tissues?
    • Cytoplasm
    • Liver, kidney, brain, mammary gland, and adipose tissue
  2. Primary building block?
    Acetyl CoA, but no transporters to bring out of mitochondria
  3. How does Acetyl CoA get out of mitochondrion?
    In the form of citrate
  4. How does acetyl coA get into the mitochondrion?
    Pyruvate and produces 1 NADPH in the process
  5. When cell is rich in ATP TCA is ____ and what builds up and exits the cell?
    • Inhibited
    • Citrate
  6. Only 6/14 NADPH come from Pentose Phosphate Pathway, where do other 8 come from?
    8 NADPH produced from moving 8 molecules acetyl CoA out of mitochondria
  7. Acetyl CoA Carboxylase uses what as a cofactor?
    • Biotin
    • Used to activated
  8. How many NADPH are needed to add 2 Carbons to a fatty acid?
    2
  9. Hormones regulate carboxylases by...
    covalent modification
  10. Acetyl CoA carboxylases regulated through
    Allosteric modification
  11. Tridosan inhibits reduction leading to
    Butyruyl ACP
  12. Eicosanoid hormones are derived from
    Arachinodic acid
  13. Anabolic synthesis occurs when cells have...
    enough energy to share
  14. y-Hydroxybutyric acid
    • date rape drug
    • liquid ecstasy
  15. Long chain and unsaturated fatty acid synthesis:
    • Occurs in cytoplasm
    • Catalyzed by enzymes bound to cytoplasmic side of smooth ER
  16. Delta 9 Desaturase
    add double bond!
  17. Muttienzyme complex
    head to tail arrangement of monomers 1/2 one with 1/2 of the other--produced simultaneously.
  18. Intoxication promotes
    • Lipogenesis
    • Leads to Fatty Liver
  19. Lipids to be synthesized
    • Storage lipid: Triacylglycerol
    • Membrane lipids: phospholipids and sphingolipids
    • cholesterol: membrane component and steroid precursor
  20. Phosphatidate is a common precursor for:
    Triacylglycerol and Phospholipids
  21. CDP-DAG + inositol
    Phosphatidylinositol
  22. CDP-DAG + choline
    Phophatidylcholine (lecithin)
  23. CDP-DAG + ethanolamine
    Phosphatidylethanolamine
  24. Sphingomyelin components?
    • Sphingosine
    • fatty acid
    • phosphoric acid
    • choline
    • (made from ceramide)
  25. Cerebroside
    • Sphingosine
    • Fatty Acid
    • Galactose
  26. Tay-sachs Disease
    • Inability to degrade ganglioside
    • Enzyme deficient N-acetylhexosaminidase
  27. Synthesis of Cholesterol
    • Cytoplasm
    • 1. Biosynthesis of Mevalonate for Acetyl CoA
    • 2. Formation of Isoprenoid units from Mealonate (5 C molecule)
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • 3. Six isoprenoid units form squalene (30 C linear)
    • 4. Squalene cyclized to lanosterol
    • 5. Lanosterol converted to cholesterol (27 C)
  28. Formation of Mevalonate requires?
    • 2 Acetyl CoA and 2 NADPH
    • regulated by HMG-CoA reductase
  29. HMG-CoA reducatase can be inhibited by?
    • Statins
    • Cholesterol and Mevalonate
  30. Chylomicron
    • B48
    • C
    • E
  31. VLDL
    • B100
    • C
    • E
  32. IDL
    • B100
    • E
  33. LDL
    B100
  34. HDL
    A
  35. Chylomicron
    VLDL
    IDL
    LDL
    HDL
    • Listed Low Density to High Density
    • Low Protien to High Protein
    • High fat and size to low fat and size
  36. Cholesterol Precursor for
    Steroid hormones like Glucocorticoids, Mineralocorticoids, androgens
  37. Familial hypercholestremia
    High LDL
  38. Steroids cause
    High testosterone levels
  39. Rickets
    Low Vitamin D in children
  40. Ostcomolacia
    Low viatmin D in Adults

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