the greater part or number; the number larger than half the total (opposed to minority): the majority of the population.
: A subordinate group whose member have significantly less control or power over their own lives than
do the members of a dominant or majority group.
A group that is socially set apart because of obvious physical differences.
A group set apart from other because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns
Race is a social construction, and this process benefits the oppressor, who defines who is privileged and who is not.
Concept of Race
the tendency to assume that one's culture is superior to all others
a doctrine that one race is superior
negative attitude, not behavior
a structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal rewards and power in a society.
The process by which a subordinate individual or roup takes on the characteristics of the dominant group.
Mutual respect between the various groups in a society for the one another’s cultures, allowing minorities to express their
own culture w/out experiencing prejudice or hostility.
The process by which a dominant group and a subordinate group combine through intermarriage to form a new group.
directs the Department of Justice to gather data on hate or bias crimes
Hate crime statistic act
-involves prejudiced people believing they are society's victims
-transfers guilt from the individual to some vulnerable group
-lead to mass extermination of German Jews during World War II
the basis of racial discrimination in the United States
any arbitrary police initiated action based on race ethinicity, or natural origin rather than a person behavior.
The combination of current discrimination w/past discrimination created by poor schools and menial jobs.
The denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups that results from the normal operations of a society
- Institutional forms of discrimination are committed collectively against a group
- May be unconscious - in that it is not a function of awareness of discrimination
Criminal Justice and Housing
1964 civil rights act
- The pattern of discrimination against people trying to buy homes in minority and racially changing neighborhoods
- Applied to areas other than housing
The positive effort to recruit subordinate-group members, including women, for jobs, promotions, and
- Today, has become a catchall term for racial preference programs and goals
- Lightning rod for opposition to any programs that suggest special consideration of women and racial minorities
Refers to the barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified worker because of gender or minority membership
- Additionally, they face glass walls that block lateral moves to areas from which executives are promoted
Beliefs and policies favoring native-born citizens over immigrants
Effectively ended all Chinese immigration for more than 60 years
Chinese exclusion act
Primary goals of the act was to reunite families and protect American labor market; Also initiated restrictions on immigration from Latin America
1965 naturalization act
Historic change in immigration policy Amnesty granted to 1.7 million illegal immigrants who could document long term residency
Immigration reform and control act 1986
Emphasized more effort to keep immigrants from entering the country illegally; No access to social security and welfare
1996 illegal immigration reform act
Marcus Hansen’s contention that ethnic interest and awareness increase in the third generation among the grandchildren of immigrants.
Principal of third generation
Expressions of ethnicity involving symbols of one’s cultural heritage
Fear of hatred of strangers
The social acceptance of prejudice against White ethnics, when intolerance against non-White minorities is regarded as
People’s opportunities to provide themselves w/material goods, positive living conditions, and favorable life experiences.
The religious dimension in American life that merges the state with sacred beliefs. It also reflects that no single faith is
privileged over all others.
Laws that defined the low position held by slaves in the United States
Slaveholders replaced any vestige of African tradition, also complexity of social life on the continent.
Factors that contributed to loss of African culture
The Document that freed slaves only in the confederacy in 1863
That state laws requiring "seperate but equal" accommodations for Blacks were "reasonable" use of state government power.
Plessy v. furgenson
In 1948, President Harry S Truman's Executive Order 9981 ordered the integration of the armed forces shortly after World War II, a major advance
in civil rights. Using the Executive Order (E.O.) meant that Truman could bypass Congress. Representatives of the Solid South, all white Democrats, would likely
have stonewalled related legislation.
Desegregation in military
organized in October 1966 in Oakland, California, by Huey Newton, age 24 and Bobby Seale, age 30, to represent urban
Blacks in a political climate that the Panthers felt was unresponsive.
Black Panther Party
abolitionist, both white and Free Blacks.
Anti slavery advocate
Results from residential patterns
according to policy or law children were assigned to schools on the basis of race
De jure segregation
Challenges to Family Stability
- Female-headed household
- Economic status of African-American male has been deteriorating
- Extended family and augmented members as a means of emotional, social and physical support