Psychology - Ch.7 - Learning - Classical Conditioning
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Acquisition of knowledge or behavior from experience that results in permanent change
What is Classical Conditioning?
Classical Conditioning is when a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paird with a stimulus that naturally produces a response.
Example: Pavlov showed that dogs learned to salivate to a neutral stimulus, such as a bell or a tone, after that stimulus had been associated with another stimulus that naturally invokes salvation, such as food.
What are the 4 basic elements of classical conditioning?
- Unconditioned stimulus: something that reliably produces a naturally offurring reaction in an organism.
- Unconditioned response: a reflexive reaction that is reliably produced by an unconditioned stimulus
- Conditioned stimulus: a stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism
- Conditioned response: a reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced by a conditioned stimulus
The phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US (or UCS) are presented together.
The gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the US (or UCS) is no longer presented.
Exposure to the CS without the US (or UCS)
Second-order conditioning is...
Conditioning where the UCS is the stimulus that acquired its ability to produce learning from an earlier procedure in which it was used as a CS.
Spontaneous recovery is...
The tendency of the learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period.
A process in which the CR is observed even though the UCS is slightly different from the original one used during acquisition.
The capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli.
Biological preparedness is...
A propensity for learning a particular kind of associations over others.
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