Bio Test 4

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Bio Test 4
2011-11-14 00:25:18

Terms + HW
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  1. Alleles
    One of two or more alternative forms of a gene
  2. Recessive
    Allele whose expression is masked if a dominant allele is present. a
  3. Dominant
    Allele that is expressed whenever it is present. A
  4. Heterozygous
    Possessing two different alleles for a particular gene. Aa
  5. Homozygous
    Possessing two identical alleles for a particular gene. AA or aa.
  6. Monohybrid cross
    Mating between two individual that are heterozygous for the same gene.
  7. Dihybrid cross
    Mating between two individuals that are heterozygous for two genes
  8. Pleiotropic gene
    Multiple phenotypic effect of one genotype
  9. Polygenic trait
    Caused by more than one gene.
  10. Promoter
    A control sequence at the start of a gene; attracts RNA polymerase and (in eukaryotes) transcription factors.
  11. Terminator
    Sequence in DNA that signals where the gene’s coding region ends.
  12. Intron
    Portion of an mRNA molecule that is removed before translation
  13. Repressor
    In an operon, a protein that bind to the operator and prevents transcription
  14. Point mutation
    A type of mutation in which one DNA base substitutes for another.
  15. Mutagen
    Any external agent that causes a mutation
  16. Parental genotype
    The genetic makeup of a parent. Ex- AA, Rr, tt.
  17. Autosomal dominant
    Inheritance pattern of a dominant allele on an autosome
  18. Autosomal recessive
    Inheritance pattern of a recessive allete on an autosome
  19. Bacterial gene transfer in which genetic material is transferred by a sex pilus is called
  20. Most of the body’s cells which do not participate in reproductions are called _____ cells
  21. What three steps are involved in every sexual life cycle?
    Meiosis, gamete formation, fertilization
  22. What are the 22 pairs of non-reproduction chromosomes called?
  23. Chromosomes that look alike and carry the same sequence of genes are
  24. Two homologous chromosomes exchange genetic information. This is known as
    Crossing over
  25. What occurs when chromosomes fail to separate at one of the meiotic divisions?
  26. When part of a chromosome flips and reinserts, this is called?
  27. During what stage of meiosis are the chromosome numbers reduced by half?
    Anaphase 1