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2010-03-29 16:13:11

Pretty much every human-disease-causing entity ever
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  1. Koilocytes
    Enlarged nuclei; HPV
  2. Negri bodies
  3. Cowdry bodies
  4. Viruses that form multinucleated giant cells (synctyia)
    Come in 3's: MMR, & the 3 alpha-Herpesviruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV)
  5. How to diagnose Mycoplasma pneumoniae
    Grows on Eaton's agar; no cell wall, so neither positive nor negative Gram staining. Cell membrane does contain cholesterol, though = the only one. "Fried-egg" colonies when grown on cholesterol-rich medium. Walking pneumonia = CXR looks worse than pt. High level of cold agglutinins (IgM Ab's): RBC's clump together when placed on ice.
  6. Waterhouse-Friederichsen syndrome
    N.meningitides: sepsis, adrenal insufficiency, DIC, death.
  7. 2 bacteria with toxins that inactivate EF-2 (elongation factor -- messes up protein synthesis)
    Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Pseudomonas
  8. Obligate aerobes
    Only 1 gram-neg. "Nagging Pests Must Breathe": Nocardia, Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium, Bacillus
  9. Weil-Felix reaction
    Detects Ab's against Rickettsia species, except for Q fever (Coxiella burnetti).
  10. Obligate anaerobes
    Only 1 gram-neg. "Can't Breathe Air": Clostridium, Bacteroides, Actinomyces.
  11. Candida albicans
    Thrush (HIV/immunocomp, neonates, DM); diaper rash; vulvovaginitis (DM, antibiotics); endocarditis (IV drug users). Yeast w/pseudohyphae, but germ tube at 37C (remember, all the C fungi are yeast at some point).
  12. Aspergillus fumigatus
    • 1) Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosus. (IgE)
    • 2) Fungus ball in lung cavity (mycetoma).
    • 3) Invasive lung disease (immunocomp) -- often-asymptomatic pneumonia, but deadly.
    • Mold w/septate hyphae.
  13. Cryptococcus neoformans
    Yeast w/pseudohyphae. Chronic meningitis & pneumonia. India ink (not very sensitive), latex agglutination.
  14. Mucor & Rhizopus spp.
    Molds; mucormycosis. Pts w/diabetic ketoacidosis & leukemia. Frontal lobe abscesses, infarcts of distal tissue.
  15. Tinea versicolor
    By Malassezia furfur. Hot, humid weather; some patches don't tan. Spaghetti & meatball = both hyphae & yeast.
  16. Pneumocystis jiroveci (carinii)
    Diffuse interstitial pneumonia in AIDS (otherwise, usually asymptomatic). Yeast. Silver stain.
  17. Sporothrix schenckii
    Dimorphic, rose gardener = local pustule w/nodules along lymphatics.
  18. Giardia lamblia
    Protozoan cysts in water -- bloating, flatulence, foul-smelling diarrhea (often seen in campers) -- but not bloody (no intestinal wall invasion). Metronidazole.
  19. Protozoans in general
    Single-celled eukaryotes. Forms: cyst (protected form that's infective) & trophozoite (active, feeding form)
  20. Trichomonas vaginalis
    Usually asympt in men. Women = foul greenish discharge, itching, burning. Can be infected multiple times b/c no immunity ever acquired (non-invasive organism).
  21. Trypanosoma cruzi
    • Starts as hard, red area = chagoma. Then, fever + heart (tachycardia) + CNS (meningoencephalitis).
    • If progresses to chronic infect (years later), then Chagas' disease: dilated cardiomyopathy, mega-esophagus & -colon.
    • Transmission: Reduviid (kissing) bug -- has wild animal reservoirs.
  22. Trypanosoma gambiense & rhodesiense
    • Sleeping sickness -- West & East African, respectively. (East is more deadly...so if you have that version, then you're going to the E.R.) Transmitted by Tsetse fly.
    • Recurrent fever (b/c of Ag variation), lymphadenopathy, somnolence, coma.
  23. Leishmania donovani
    Sandfly. The protozoans (amastigote form) live inside macrophages. 1) Cutaneous form: 1 (or multiple) skin ulcers. 2) Visceral: hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, spiking fevers & weight loss.
  24. Plasmodium vivax
    • 2nd most common malaria strain (remember FAVE). Cyclic fever, HA, hepatosplenomegaly/anemia.
    • Relapse, b/c dormant form (hypnozoite) lies in liver. Chloroquine-sensitive. Use primaquine for prophylaxis (they're protected from chloroquine in liver).
  25. Plasmodium falciparum
    Most infectious (and common?). Induces knob formation on RBC's --> sequestration in microvasculature --> infarcts.
  26. Malaria life cycle & resistance
    • Sporozoites infect & grow in liver --> trophozoites --> schizonts --> release lots of merozoites, which infect RBC's. Inside RBC's, whole life cycle repeats... merozoites released again (hemolysis). Some merozoites become gametocytes, which mosquito takes up for mating.
    • Resistance develops when ppl have different Duffy antigens (which malaria uses to bind to RBC's & get in).
  27. Babesia
    Babesiosis = fever, hemolytic anemia (b/c the protozoan invades RBC's). Deer tick, northeastern US.
  28. Cryptosporidium
    Severe diarrhea in AIDS pts (mild in everyone else -- travel, daycare). The cysts are visible on acid-fast staining. (Other acid-fast stainers: the bacteria Mycobacterium & Nocardia, the great TB mimicker!)
  29. Toxoplasma gondii
    Cat feces & meat contain cysts. Brain: birth defects in fetuses, abscesses in HIV pts (HA, focal neuro signs, retinitis --> blind). A baby might be fine, but then in 20's: reactivation --> retinitis --> blind.
  30. Entamoeba histolytica
    Dysentery. More common in developing countries (cysts in water, fecal-to-oral). Bloody diarrhea (when trophozoites invade intestinal wall), liver abscess/RUQ pain... but most infections actually asymptomatic.
  31. Naegleria fowleri
    • Foul play: Rapidly fatal meningoencephalitis. Ingest while swimming in fresh water (via cribiform plate).
    • Dirty contact lenses: keratitis --> blind
  32. Flatworms
    • Tapeworms (mate in GI tract) + flukes.
    • Tapeworms: T.solium, D.latum, E.granuilosus
    • Flukes: Schistosoma, C.sinensis, P.westsermani
  33. Nematode (roundworm) species where you eat the eggs
    Enterobius, Ascaris, Trichinella spiralis, Toxocara canis (eggs in eggs)
  34. Worm species where larvae penetrate your skin
    • Roundworms: Strongyloides, Necator americanus (hookworm)
    • Flukes: Schistosoma
    • If you eat tapeworm larvae, then brain cysts.
  35. Nematode (roundworm) species transmitted by an insect vector
    Onchocerca (female blackfly), Loa loa (deer, horse, & mango flies), Wuchereria bancrofti (female mosquito)
  36. Enterobius vermicularis
    Pinworm. Ingest eggs (food, or fecal-to-oral) --> mature in gut --> eggs hatch at perianal opening
  37. Ascaris lumbricoides
    Giant roundworm. Ingest eggs --> intestinal infection. Kids can get malnutrition, gut obstruction... but many people infected w/o much disease.
  38. Trichinella spiralis
    Ingest eggs (raw pork) --> larvae settle in skeletal muscle, periorbital edema (rarely, brain).
  39. Strongyloides stercoralis
    Larvae (in soil) enter skin --> intestinal infection: vomiting, diarrhea, & also anemia.
  40. Necator americanus
    Hookworm. Step on larvae --> intestinal infection can cause anemia, b/c suck blood.
  41. Dracunculus medinensis
    Skin inflammation & ulcers; found in drinking water.
  42. Onchocerca volvulus
    River blindness; larvae (microfilariae) transmitted by female blackfly, & worms die in cornea. Also, "lizard skin" (thick, dry, dark pigment). The microfilariae can cause allergic rxns.
  43. Loa loa
    Skin swelling (can see worm crawling in conjunctivae!). Deer, horse, & mango flies.
  44. Wuchereria bancrofti
    Elephantiasis when worms die in lymph vessels --> fibrosis; takes 9 months or so. Female mosquito.
  45. Toxocara canis
    Eat eggs in food. Granulomas (cause blindness if in retina) & larvae migrating in organs.
  46. Taenia solium
    • Pork tapeworm (ingest larvae in undercooked pork) --> intestinal infection.
    • If you ingest eggs instead: neurocysticercosis -- mass lesions in brain.
  47. Diphyllobothrium latum
    Fish tapeworm. B12 deficiency --> anemia.
  48. Echinococcus granulosus
    Dog tapeworm. Eat eggs --> cysts in liver, lung, brain. If fluid is released from these cysts, then anaphylaxis.
  49. Schistosoma
    Mature larvae (cercariae) penetrate skin --> fever (Katayama), dermatitis --> Granulomas/fibrosis of liver & spleen (obv, can cause portal HTN). Africa & Asia, snail host.
  50. Clonorchis sinensis
    Fluke (flatworm) in undercooked fish. Pigmented gallstones, cholangiocarcinoma.
  51. Paragonimus westermani
    Flatworm in undercooked crab meat. Lung inflammation/ 2ndary bacterial infection.