A&P Chapter #23 - 1

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Author:
aji
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116679
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A&P Chapter #23 - 1
Updated:
2011-11-14 11:44:35
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itsaji PHCC
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Description:
Digestive System
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  1. ___ material enters through the mouth
    Ingestion
  2. ___ takes place after ingestion, via action of the tongue, teeth/jaw motions, muscular movement of the digestive tract (chewing, segmentation, churning)
    Mechanical Processing
  3. ___ swallowing, peristalisis
    Propulsion
  4. ___ is the actual breakdown of food, into molecules that can be absorbed by the digestive epithelium
    Digestion
  5. ___ requires acids, enzymes, buffers for reactions to occur, process of SECRETION supplies these essentials
    Digestion
  6. ___ : movement of substances across digestive epithelium to interstitial space (includes organic molecules, electrolytes (ions), vitamins, water)
    Absorption
  7. ___ : dehydrate indigestible material
    Compaction
  8. ___ : discharge of fecal material
    Defecation
  9. ___ exists as a 3-Dimensional structure, functions to increase surface area available for absorption.
    Epithelium
  10. ___ Cells in areas where mechanical stresses are greatest Ex.) oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, rectum, anus.
    Stratified Squamous
  11. ___ Cells in the remainder of the GI tract, where secretory cells are common.
    Simple Columnar
  12. ___ Two-layered smooth muscle structure (one circular arrangement next to sm. muscle in longitudinal arrangement) Will alter lumen shape, move folds.
    Muscularis Mucosa
  13. ___ A connective tissue layer (+ blood vessels, nerves, lymphatic tissue, smooth muscle)
    Lamina Propria
  14. EPITHELIUM + L.PROPRIA + MUSCLARIS MUCOSAE = ___
    MUCOUS MEMBRANE (Mucosa)
  15. ___ A connective tissue layer (second), same composition as the lamina propria
    Submucosa
  16. Submucosa surrounds muscularis mucosae that may contain ___ (buffers, enzymes, acids)
    Exocrine Glands
  17. Submucosa contains sensory nerve fibers = ___(PNS and SNS fibers)
    Submucosal Plexus
  18. ___ smooth muscle structure circular inner layer and longitudinal outer layer
    Muscularis Externa
  19. ___ Role in moving bolus of food through GI tract
    Muscularis Externa
  20. Muscularis Externa movements are controlled by ___ that lies between the two sm. muscle layers.(parasympathetic will increase muscle activity/tone, while the sympathetic input will inhibit contraction, relaxation results)
    Myenteric Plexus
  21. ___ Loose connective tissue layer surrounds mus. externa.
    Adventitia
  22. @ oral cavity/esophogus/rectum the adventitia is attached to adjacent structures via dense ___
    collagen network
  23. @ areas of GI tract within the peritoneal cavity, the adventitia is covered by the ___
    serosa (visceral peritoneum)
  24. ___ Serous membranes, secrete serous fluid(lubricates, decrease friction), A cavity exists between 2
    Peritoneum
  25. Peritoneum on organ ___
    Visceral
  26. ___ lines peritoneal cavity
    Parietal
  27. Folded extensions of the visceral and parietal peritoneum.
    Mesenteries
  28. Double sheets of the peritoneum, often have a role in suspending parts of the digestive tract.
    Mesenteries
  29. Non Striated (no sarcomeres),Spindle Shape cell,Single Nucleus, Actin & Myosin protein filaments exists.
    Smooth Muscle of Digestive Tract
  30. Initiation of contraction begins as the lekage of Ca2 into ___
    Sarcoplasm
  31. MLCK
    Myosin Light Chain Kinase
  32. Once an interaction between actin & myosin occurs sliding results and cell shortens causing ___
    CONTRACTION
  33. ___ of certain muscularis regions of the GI tract will undergo spontaneous depolarization, leading to contraction
    Pacesetter Cells
  34. ___ will result from local stimuli, i.e.sensory receptors in the walls of the tract trigger a local contraction (region of a few cm)
    Myenteric reflexes
  35. Contractions may be initiated by fibers of the
    Vagus, Glossopharyngeal, Pelvic nerves
  36. GI tract Contraction - effects of Parasympathetic activity ___
    Stimulates
  37. GI tract Contraction - effects of Sympathetic activity ___
    Inhibits
  38. The movement of materials from one part of the GI tract to another via muscularis externa contractions ___
    Peristalsis
  39. The contractions occur in a specific order ___
    circular muscles first followed by longitudinal muscles
  40. The sm.intestine exhibit ___ movement
    Segmentation

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