A&P Chapter #23 - 2

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A&P Chapter #23 - 2
2011-11-14 12:29:07
itsaji PHCC

Digestive System
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  1. Swallowing (deglutition) has 3 phases
    Buccal, Pharyngeal & Esophageal
  2. Buccal
    • compression of bolus against hard palate
    • while soft palate is raised up and thereby occludes the nasopharynx
  3. Pharyngeal
    • larynx elevates, epiglottis folds to direct bolus toward the esophagus
    • pharyngeal muscles contract and move bolus into the esophagus
  4. Esophageal
    • upper esophageal sphincter opens
    • primary peristaltic wave occurs
    • downward moving bolus triggers lower sphincter to open
    • bolus enters the stomach
  5. Requirement of substantial fluid to successfully move bolus into the stomach at a reasonable rate of
    9 seconds
  6. once past the oral cavity ___ occurs
    Swallowing Reflex
  7. When bolus touching uvula and palate sends sensory info to swallowing center of ___
  8. Motor commands sent to pharyngeal and esophageal muscle to complete ___
  9. Respiratory center of medulla is ___ while swallowing
  10. In stomach epithelial tissue coated with
    viscous mucus
  11. ___ pockets of epithelium, where actively dividing cells will replace cells lost in the lumen
    Gastric Pits
  12. ___ continuous with pits, extend into the lamina propria
    Gastric Glands
  13. ___ secrete HCL and intrinsic factor (IF)
    Parietal Cells
  14. Inteinsic Factor (IF) aids in vit. B-12 absorption in ___
  15. HCl lowers pH (1.5-2) to ___
    kill microorganisms, digest plant cell wall protein & activates the chief cell secreation.
  16. chief cells: dominate the base of the gastric gland it secrete ___
  17. ___ is a proteinase
  18. ___ secrete gastrin (a hormone) into the circulation of the lamina propria, a hormone which will stimulate parietal and chief cell secretion.
    Entero endocrine Cells
  19. Stomach (gastric) Secretions: 3 phases
    Cephalic phase, Gastric Phase, Intestinal Phase
  20. Prepares stomach for food arrival: when PS fibers stimulate the parietal, chief, and mucous cells to secrete
    Cephalic phase
  21. Food in stomach stimulates stretch receptors and chemoreceptors in the wall, results ___ secretion
  22. Gastrin stimulates ___
    Gastric contraction and secreation
  23. As chyme enters the s.intestine __ phase begins
    Intestinal Phase
  24. Intestinal Phase allows the control of gastric emptying known as
    Enterogastric Reflex
  25. ___ & ___ are responsible for release of liver and pancreatic secretions, but have a secondary effect of inhibiting gastric secretions.
    Secretin & Cholecystokinin(CCK)
  26. ___ will inhibit gastric activity, but MAIN function to stimulate the release of insulin from pancreas
  27. GIP (Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Peptide / Gastric Inhibitory Peptide)
  28. The Small Intestine length
    6 meters (20 feet)
  29. Intestinal wall has ___ transverse folds (permanent) to increase available surface area for absorption
  30. 80% of all absorption occurs in ___
  31. ___ projections of the plicae, covered with simple columnar epithelium (microvilli-containing cells)
    Intestinal Villi
  32. ___ a lymphatic found at each villus of the small intestine
  33. fatty acids are packaged as chylomicrons (protein-lipid molecules) that will reach circulation thru ___
  34. ___ is nearest the stomach, receives chyme (very acidic), receive pancreatic secretions to buffer pH (incr.),receives liver exocrine secretions (bile), highly mucous epithelium (buffers incoming acids)
    Duodenum - 1 feet
  35. ___ most of the absorption occurs here plicae and villi are prominent nearest
    Jejunum - 8 feet
  36. ___ most all absorption has taken place before chyme reaches the end of this subdivision
    ileum - 11 feet
  37. ___ centers of lymphatic tissue, especially abundant near the L.intestine where escaping bacteria can be found.
    Peyer's Patch
  38. ___ Occurs when there is distension of the stomach,Results in an increase in secretions and perstaltic movements of the S. intestine
    Gastroenteric Reflex
  39. ___ Will make room in sm. intestine for incoming chyme, Occurs via gastrin secreation from the stomach relaxes ileocecal spincter
    Gastroileal Reflex