PCM Nutrition in Health flashcards.txt
Card Set Information
PCM Nutrition in Health flashcards.txt
PCM Nutrition flashcards
How do you calculate BMI?
Weight in pounds/ heigh in inches squared X703
Waist Circumference is a good indicator of the risk for what two diseases?
CV and DM2
A bad waist circumference for women is
A bad waist circumference for men is
A good cholesterol level is under
A good LDL level is under
A good HDL level is over
According to Choose my plate how what should be the main make up of a typical dinner
Fruits and veggies should take up the majority with grains an protein making up a smaller portion
What patients are at risk for malnutrition
abnormal lab values
What diet do you give a patient with dysphagia?
Thickened liquids, mechanical soft grount and pureed food
What diet do you give a patient on Hemo/peritoneal dialysis?
Sodium, potassium, phosphorus and fluid and protein
What diet do you give to a CHF patient?
2 gm sodium, fluid restrictions
What diet do you give a pt on coumadin?
Avoid foods with high potassium levels
What are the 4 thicknesses of fluids?
Describe thin liquids and name some examples
regular liquids, no adjustment needed
buttermilk, tomatoe juice
Describe nectar thick liquids and name some examples
falls slowly from a spoon can sip through a straw
Describe a honey thick liquid and name some examples
drops from a spoon too thick to sip from a straw
: tomato sauce
Maintains shape needs spoon too thick to drink
Describe a dysphagia diet level one
bread- pureed or pre gelled, slurry
fruits- pureed/well mashed no seeds etc
Describe a dysphagia diet level 2
soft testured so can form a bolus
beverages have suspended pulp, bits of texture
moist well cooked veggies cut in half
Describe a dysphagia diet level 3
near normal texture
exclude crunchy sticky or very hard foods
moist breads, cereals, desserts potatoes soups
4 conditions where you really want to monitor the patients electrolyte intake...
Edema, HTN, CHF, Renal impairment
Name a disease that elevates potassium
Name some drugs that can elevate potassium
beta blockers, potassium supplements, ACE/ARBs
Name some high potassium foods
green beans, iceburg lettuce, 1 egg, one small banana, one orange, potatoe with skin
What is the dietary goal cholesterol for cholesterol reduction diet?
Name some high saturated fat foods
What do you limit with a cholesterol reduction diet?
fat all types
What are some examples of trans fat foods
margarine, shortening, fried foods, packaged foods made with hydrogenated oils, french fries, doughnuts, baked goods including pastries and pie crust, biscuits, pizza dough, cookies and crackers
Name two foods that will improve your dietary cholesterol
What are some examples of Omega 3 Fats?
Salmon, tuna, mackerel, sardines, walnuts, canola, soybean, flaxseed oil or ground
What is the recommendation on Dietary Fiber and what can you eat to get it?
20-30 grams per day
fruits, veggies, whole grains, dried beans
5 cups of fruit/veggie or 3 ounces of whole grain foods
Name some conditions that are indications for a low sodium diet
conditions of fluid retention or swelling
ADA guidelines on sodium suggest that you limit your sodium intake to how many mg per day?
what 5 things should you monitor intake of with a patient who has chronic kidney disease
Sodium, Potassium, protein, phosphorus, calcium
What is Lactose Intolerance
Inability to digest sugar found in dairy
What causes lactose intolerance
Is lactose intolerance more common in white children or black children
What are the symptoms of lactose intolerance
bloating, flatus, diarrhea, cramps, delayed growth in children
How soon after eating dairy to lactose intolerance symptoms appear?
30 mins to 2 hours
What are some secondary causes of lactose intolerance?
Bacterial overgrowth, infectious enteritis, giardiasis, mucosal injury (celiac, IBC, Drug and radiation induced)
How do you test for Lactose intolerance?
Test for the presence of hydrogen after lactose load (urea breath test)
Treatment for lactose intolerance includes:
avoid milk products
: yogurt, buttermilk, aged cheese, ingest lactase
What are some food sources with high vitamin A
Liver, fish oils, fortified milk, eggs
Who gets deficiencies in vitamin A?
Elderly, achoholism, liver disease, night blindness, dry skin
Sx of Vitamin A toxicity
skin disorders, hair loss, poss teratogenic
Vitamin C food sources include:
citrus fruits, strawberries, broccoli, mixed green veggies
What are some functions of vitamin C in the body
neurotransmitter synthesis, collagen synthesis
Who is at risk for Vitamin C deficiencies
elderly men, alcholism, college students and sailors
What happens to pts with Vitamin C deficiencies?
Poor wound healing, bleeding gums, petechiae, scurvey
What happens with levels of Vitamin C that are too high?
What is a food source of Vitamin D?
What is the function of Vitamin D in the body
calcium regulation, cell differentiation
Who is at risk for Vit D deficiencies?
Elderly, those with low sun exposure
What happens to patients with Vit D deficiencies?
What happens with toxic levels of Vit D>?
hypercalcemia, renal calcuil, soft tissue calcium deposits
What are some food sources of Vitamin K
spinach, broccoli, asparagus
What cartoon character is �strong to the finish� and is NOT at risk of vitamin K deficiency? Bonus question what vitamin deficiency is this cartoon character at risk of?
Poppy the sailor man!
Because he is a sailor traditionally he would be at risk of ricketts because of a vitamin C deficiency however college students have passed sailors as the group of people most at risk for Vit C defic.
What can Vitamin K deficiency cause?
Bleeding deficiencies effects in factors VII, IX, X and prothrombin
Is vitamin K fat or water soluble?
Riboflavin (B2) is found in what foods?
Meat, fish, eggs, milk, green veggies, enriched foods
Deficiencies of Riboflavin lead to what manifestations?
Cheilitis, glossitis stomatitis, mucosal edema
Thiamine (B1) is found in what foods?
Pork, grains, peas, dried beans, brewer's yeast,
What is Thiamine's function in the body?
CHO metabolism, nerve functioning
What patient population is at risk for thiamine deficiency?
What are some consequences of thiamine deficiency?
Beriberi- tingling poor coordination, weakness, edema possible cardiac dysfunction
Wernike's encephalopathy- name the deficiency
Beriberi- name the deficiency
Chelitis, glossitis, stomatitis mucosal edemal name the deficiency
Bleeding problems � name the deficiency
Osteomalacia name the deficiency
Scurvy � name the deficiency
Ricketts- name the deficiency
night blindness � name the deficiency