PCM Nutrition in Health flashcards.txt

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BostonPhysicianAssist
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116738
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PCM Nutrition in Health flashcards.txt
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2011-11-14 16:03:02
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Nutrition
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PCM Nutrition flashcards
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  1. Underweight BMI
    <18.5
  2. Normal BMI
    18.5-24.9
  3. Overweight BMI
    25-29.9
  4. Obese
    >/= 30
  5. How do you calculate BMI?
    Weight in pounds/ heigh in inches squared X703
  6. Waist Circumference is a good indicator of the risk for what two diseases?
    CV and DM2
  7. A bad waist circumference for women is
    >35 inches
  8. A bad waist circumference for men is
    >40 inches
  9. A good cholesterol level is under
    200
  10. A good LDL level is under
    100
  11. A good HDL level is over
    60
  12. According to Choose my plate how what should be the main make up of a typical dinner
    Fruits and veggies should take up the majority with grains an protein making up a smaller portion
  13. What patients are at risk for malnutrition
    • weight
    • weight changes
    • dysphagia
    • food intolerance
    • reflux
    • abnormal lab values
  14. What diet do you give a patient with dysphagia?
    Thickened liquids, mechanical soft grount and pureed food
  15. What diet do you give a patient on Hemo/peritoneal dialysis?
    Sodium, potassium, phosphorus and fluid and protein
  16. What diet do you give to a CHF patient?
    2 gm sodium, fluid restrictions
  17. What diet do you give a pt on coumadin?
    Avoid foods with high potassium levels
  18. What are the 4 thicknesses of fluids?
    • Thin
    • nectar thick
    • Honeylike
    • spoon thick
  19. Describe thin liquids and name some examples
    • regular liquids, no adjustment needed
    • buttermilk, tomatoe juice
  20. Describe nectar thick liquids and name some examples
    falls slowly from a spoon can sip through a straw
  21. Describe a honey thick liquid and name some examples
    • drops from a spoon too thick to sip from a straw
    • Example: tomato sauce
  22. Spoon
    • Maintains shape needs spoon too thick to drink
    • pudding
  23. Describe a dysphagia diet level one
    • Pureed
    • bread- pureed or pre gelled, slurry
    • fruits- pureed/well mashed no seeds etc
    • Veggies pureed
  24. Describe a dysphagia diet level 2
    • mechanically altered
    • soft testured so can form a bolus
    • beverages have suspended pulp, bits of texture
    • moist well cooked veggies cut in half
  25. Describe a dysphagia diet level 3
    • advanced
    • near normal texture
    • exclude crunchy sticky or very hard foods
    • moist breads, cereals, desserts potatoes soups
  26. 4 conditions where you really want to monitor the patients electrolyte intake...
    Edema, HTN, CHF, Renal impairment
  27. Name a disease that elevates potassium
    Renal failure
  28. Name some drugs that can elevate potassium
    beta blockers, potassium supplements, ACE/ARBs
  29. Name some high potassium foods
    green beans, iceburg lettuce, 1 egg, one small banana, one orange, potatoe with skin
  30. What is the dietary goal cholesterol for cholesterol reduction diet?
    <200 mg/qd
  31. Name some high saturated fat foods
    • Meat
    • Whole milk/butter/cream
  32. What do you limit with a cholesterol reduction diet?
    • Trans fat
    • cholesterol
    • sodium
    • fat all types
  33. What are some examples of trans fat foods
    margarine, shortening, fried foods, packaged foods made with hydrogenated oils, french fries, doughnuts, baked goods including pastries and pie crust, biscuits, pizza dough, cookies and crackers
  34. Name two foods that will improve your dietary cholesterol
    • Omega-3 fats
    • Dietary fiber
  35. What are some examples of Omega 3 Fats?
    Salmon, tuna, mackerel, sardines, walnuts, canola, soybean, flaxseed oil or ground
  36. What is the recommendation on Dietary Fiber and what can you eat to get it?
    • 20-30 grams per day
    • fruits, veggies, whole grains, dried beans
    • 5 cups of fruit/veggie or 3 ounces of whole grain foods
  37. Name some conditions that are indications for a low sodium diet
    • heart failure
    • hypertension
    • renal disease
    • conditions of fluid retention or swelling
  38. ADA guidelines on sodium suggest that you limit your sodium intake to how many mg per day?
    2000
  39. what 5 things should you monitor intake of with a patient who has chronic kidney disease
    Sodium, Potassium, protein, phosphorus, calcium
  40. What is Lactose Intolerance
    Inability to digest sugar found in dairy
  41. What causes lactose intolerance
    lactase deficiency
  42. Is lactose intolerance more common in white children or black children
    white
  43. What are the symptoms of lactose intolerance
    bloating, flatus, diarrhea, cramps, delayed growth in children
  44. How soon after eating dairy to lactose intolerance symptoms appear?
    30 mins to 2 hours
  45. What are some secondary causes of lactose intolerance?
    Bacterial overgrowth, infectious enteritis, giardiasis, mucosal injury (celiac, IBC, Drug and radiation induced)
  46. How do you test for Lactose intolerance?
    Test for the presence of hydrogen after lactose load (urea breath test)
  47. Treatment for lactose intolerance includes:
    • avoid milk products
    • alternatives: yogurt, buttermilk, aged cheese, ingest lactase
  48. What are some food sources with high vitamin A
    Liver, fish oils, fortified milk, eggs
  49. Who gets deficiencies in vitamin A?
    Elderly, achoholism, liver disease, night blindness, dry skin
  50. Sx of Vitamin A toxicity
    skin disorders, hair loss, poss teratogenic
  51. Vitamin C food sources include:
    citrus fruits, strawberries, broccoli, mixed green veggies
  52. What are some functions of vitamin C in the body
    neurotransmitter synthesis, collagen synthesis
  53. Who is at risk for Vitamin C deficiencies
    elderly men, alcholism, college students and sailors
  54. What happens to pts with Vitamin C deficiencies?
    Poor wound healing, bleeding gums, petechiae, scurvey
  55. What happens with levels of Vitamin C that are too high?
    Diarrhea
  56. What is a food source of Vitamin D?
    Fortified milk
  57. What is the function of Vitamin D in the body
    calcium regulation, cell differentiation
  58. Who is at risk for Vit D deficiencies?
    Elderly, those with low sun exposure
  59. What happens to patients with Vit D deficiencies?
    Osteomalacia, ricketts
  60. What happens with toxic levels of Vit D>?
    hypercalcemia, renal calcuil, soft tissue calcium deposits
  61. What are some food sources of Vitamin K
    spinach, broccoli, asparagus
  62. What cartoon character is �strong to the finish� and is NOT at risk of vitamin K deficiency? Bonus question what vitamin deficiency is this cartoon character at risk of?
    • Poppy the sailor man!
    • Because he is a sailor traditionally he would be at risk of ricketts because of a vitamin C deficiency however college students have passed sailors as the group of people most at risk for Vit C defic.
  63. What can Vitamin K deficiency cause?
    Bleeding deficiencies effects in factors VII, IX, X and prothrombin
  64. Is vitamin K fat or water soluble?
    Fat
  65. Riboflavin (B2) is found in what foods?
    Meat, fish, eggs, milk, green veggies, enriched foods
  66. Deficiencies of Riboflavin lead to what manifestations?
    Cheilitis, glossitis stomatitis, mucosal edema
  67. Thiamine (B1) is found in what foods?
    Pork, grains, peas, dried beans, brewer's yeast,
  68. What is Thiamine's function in the body?
    CHO metabolism, nerve functioning
  69. What patient population is at risk for thiamine deficiency?
    Poverty, alcoholics
  70. What are some consequences of thiamine deficiency?
    • Beriberi- tingling poor coordination, weakness, edema possible cardiac dysfunction
    • Wernikes encephalopathy
  71. Wernike's encephalopathy- name the deficiency
    thamine deficiencies
  72. Beriberi- name the deficiency
    Thamine deficiency
  73. Chelitis, glossitis, stomatitis mucosal edemal name the deficiency
    riboflavin
  74. Bleeding problems � name the deficiency
    Vitamin K
  75. Osteomalacia name the deficiency
    Vitamin D
  76. Scurvy � name the deficiency
    Vitamin C
  77. Ricketts- name the deficiency
    Vitamin D
  78. night blindness � name the deficiency
    Vitamin A

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