CCT-Cardiovascular and Medical Emergencies

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  1. The definition of hypoxic hypoxia (altitude hypoxia) is
    A deficiency in the alveolar o2 exchange, which can be caused by low barometric pressure, is known as
  2. The definition of hypemic hypoxia is
    A reduction in the o2 carrying capacity of the blood is known as
  3. The definition of stagnant hypoxia is
    This occurs when conditions exist that result in reduced total cardiac output, pooling of the blood within certain regions of the body, a decreased blood flow to the tissues, or restrictions of blood flow are known as
  4. The definition of histoxic hypoxia (tissue poisoning) is
    This occurs when metabolic disorders or poisoning of the cytochromic oxidase enzyme results in a cell's inability to use molecular o2 and is known as
  5. Which patients are affected by altitude temperature changes (3)
    • Burn pts
    • Head injured pts
    • Spinal cord injured pts
  6. Therapy for left ventricular diastolic failure is composed of
    Diuretics and relief of anxiety are used for
  7. Electrical alterans may be caused by
    Pericardial tamponade/effusion can lead to
  8. Treatment of cardiogenic shock
    • Dobutrex (dobutamine), dopamine, and Inocor to increase CO
    • Vasodilators such as Nipride, NTG, and Levophed
    • IABP and LVAD therapy
  9. Becks triad is composed of
    Hypotension, muffled heart tones, and JVD are known as
  10. Beta blockers are contraindicated in
    CHF is a contraindication for what type of medications
  11. Treatment of CHF (4)
    • Reduction of preload for relief of pulmonary edema
    • Reduction of afterload with vasodilators to enhance stroke volume and contractility
    • Natracor (neseritide)--synthetic version of BNP
    • Beta blocker--carvidolol (Coreg)
  12. The beta blocker used in CHF is
    Carvidolol (Coreg) is administered PO and is a vasodilator that decreases heart rate and improve performance used in
  13. Hypovolemic shock has these trends (CVP, CI, PAWP, SVR)
    CVP ∇, CI ∇, PAWP ∇, SVR ∆
  14. Cardiogenic shock has these trends (CVP, CI, PAWP, SVR)
    CVP ∆, CI ∇, PAWP ∆, SVR ∆
  15. RVI shock has these trends (CVP, CI, PAWP, SVR)
    CVP ∆, CI ∇, PAWP ∇, SVR ∆
  16. Neurogenic shock has these trends (CVP, CI, PAWP, SVR)
    CI ∇, SVR ∇
  17. Anaphylactic shock has these trends (CVP, CI, PAWP, SVR)
    CI ∇, SVR ∇
  18. Grave's disease components (6)
    • Hyperthyroidism
    • Exophthalmos
    • A-fib is common
    • Anxiety, tremors
    • Weight loss
    • Treatment:correct electrolytes and glucosteroids
  19. Myxedema coma (6)
    • Hypothyroidism
    • Coarse hair, deep voice, loss of outer third of eyebrows
    • Women >60, occurs in winter months
    • Fatigue
    • Weight gain
    • Treatment: levothyroxin
  20. Addison's disease (5)
    • Acute renal insufficiency
    • Hypotension is common
    • Fatigue
    • Weight loss
    • Treatment: supportive care
  21. Cushings disease (6)
    • Hyperaldosteronism
    • HTN
    • Women have facial hair, moon face, buffalo hump
    • Fatigue
    • Upper body obesity, thin arms and legs
    • Treatment" decrease or initiate steroids
  22. Formula for MAP is
    ((2xDBP) + SBP) / 3
  23. Formula for Coronary Perfusion Pressure is
  24. Formula for Cerebral Perfusion Pressure is
  25. Insertion site for pericardiocentesis is
    Just to the left of the patient's subxyphoid process is the
  26. Chest pain present while lying down but relieved when sitting forward is
    Pericarditis type chest pain has the characteristic of
  27. Treatment for aortic dissection includes these two medications
    Beta-blockers and nipride are used to treat
  28. Levine's sign characteristics
    Clutching of the chest, which may be cardiac in origin, is known as
  29. Grey Turner's sign characteristics
    Retroperitoneal bruising, which may indicate pancreatitis or trauma, is known as
  30. Murphy's sign characteristics
    Right upper quadrant pain, which may indicate gallbladder disease, is known as
  31. Cullen's sign characteristics
    Periumbilical bruising, which may indicate pancreatitis or intra-abdominal bleeding, is known as
  32. Halstead's sign characteristics
    Marbled appearance of the abdomen, which may indicate necrosis of the pancreas, is known as
  33. Kehr's Sign characteristics
    Shoulder pain, which may indicate spleen injury on the left side or ectopic pregnancy/rupture on either side
  34. Hamman's sign characteristics
    Crunching sound heard with auscultation, may be synchronized with heart rate, which may indicate tracheobronchial injury
  35. Kussmaul's sign characteristics
    A rise in venous pressure with inspiration (JVD) which can be indicativeof RVI and cardiac tamponade
  36. s3 heart tone characteristics
    Abnormal heart sound "ventricular gallop" that is associated with CHF, mitral regurgitation, and cardiomyopathy
  37. s4 heart tone characteristics
    Abnormal heart sounds "atrial gallop" that is associated with dilated or restrictive cardiomyopathy, aortic, and pulmonary stenosis
  38. Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea characteristics
    Sudden severe shortness of breath at night that awakens a persons from sleep, associated with CHF, delayed onset and relief with lying down
  39. Dilated cardiomyopathy
    Ventricular dilation, contractile dysfunction, and symptoms of heart failure
  40. Hypertropic cardiomyopathy
    Inappropriate LV hypertrophy with preserved or enhanced contractile function
  41. Restrictive cardiomyopathy
    Least common form, endocardial scarring of the ventricle with impaired diastolic filling
  42. Sandostatin (octreotide)
    A vasoactive peptide used in the management of upper gastrointestinal esophageal varices
  43. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) presents as (5)
    • Problem is lack of or low insulin
    • Develops at any age, most likely in insulin dependent patients
    • Dehydration
    • Acidosis present
    • BGL <1000 mg/dL
  44. Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonKetotic coma
    • Problem is high sugar with high serum osmolarity
    • Most patients are old, may have sudden and severe neurologic changes than DKA
    • Severe dehydration
    • Usually no production of ketones or presence of acidosis
    • BGL >1000 mg/dL
  45. Kernig's sign is
    The patient's hip is flexed to 90 degrees and the leg is extended, positive is pain to neck
  46. Brudzinski's sign is
    The patients lies on their back and their neck is flexed, if hips and knees flex sign is positive
  47. The liver normally coverts ammonia into
    Urea is the end result of
  48. Hepatic Encephalopathy is the occurrence of
    Confusion, altered level of consciousness, and coma is the result of liver failure
  49. Hepatic encephalopathy is treated with
    Laxative luctose or nonabsorbable antibiotics are used to treat
  50. Morphine is contraindicated for pain treatment in
    Acute pancreatitis pain should not be treated with
  51. Amylase is the most common blood test for
    Pancreatitis is most commonly blood tested by
  52. Drug of choice for septic shock is
    Levophed (Norepinephrine) is the drug of choice for
  53. Etomidate (Amidate) can cause
    Acute adrenal insufficiency can be caused by which medication
  54. A type of angina that can occur at rest, while sleeping, or after excercise is called
    Prinzmetal's angina can occur
  55. Chvesstek's sign, aka Weiss sign, presents as
    Tapping the facial nerve and the side of the face twitches, (Hypocalcemia, hypomagnesia)
  56. Hemoglobin lab value
  57. Hematacrit lab value
    36-52%, high in COPD pts and low in dehydrated or hemorrhage
  58. Platelets lab value
  59. WBC lab value
    4.5-10.5, increase with infection
  60. Sodium lab value
    135-145 <120 can cause seizures, keep >155 for head injuries
  61. Potassium lab value
    3.5-5.5, >7.0 can cause dysrhythmia
  62. Calcium lab value
    8.8-10.4, Chvostek and Trousseau's sign
  63. Chloride lab value
  64. CO2 lab value
  65. BUN lab value
    6-23, may indicate blood in gut, dehydration, or renal failure
  66. Creatinine lab value
    0.6-1.4, >1.4 may indicate renal failure
  67. Serum OS lab value
  68. Magnesium lab value
  69. Ammonia lab value
  70. Hepatomagaly
    An enlarged liver
  71. Anasarca
    Extreme generalized edema
  72. Ascites
    Accumulation of fluid in peritoneal cavity
  73. Whipple's triad
    • Symptoms are likely cause by hypoglycemia
    • Low plasma glucose at time of symptoms
    • Relief of symptoms when glucose is raised to normal
  74. Virchow's triad
    • Contributors of thrombosis
    • Alterations in blood flow
    • Injuries to vascular endothelium
    • Alterations in the constitution of blood (hypercoagulability)
  75. Treatment of hypertensive crisis
    Decrease MAP with Nipride, Hyperstat, and or Labetalol
Card Set:
CCT-Cardiovascular and Medical Emergencies
2011-11-23 07:23:32
CCT emergencies

CCT Cardiovascular and Medical Emergencies
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