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what age did christopher reeves die at and how?
age 52 from cardiac arrest due to antibiotic
what was christopher reeves injury?
- spinal cord crushed at C2 destroying all afferent and efferent signals
- couldnt breathe on own but after 5 years could move little finger
approx how many people reported some source of paralysis?
approx how many people reported paralysis due to spinal injury?
what was the percent of people whose cause of paralysis was by stroke, spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis?
29, 23, 17
what was the main cause of spinal cord injuries?
workplace 28% (362,000)
how many spinal nerves are there?
what are the 4 spinal regions?
- cervical-8 pairs serve chest, head, neck, shoulders, arms and hands
- thoracic- 12 pairs connect back to abdominal muscles and intercostal muscles
- lumbar- 5 pairs lower abdomen, thighs and legs
- sacrum- 6 pairs connect leg, feet and anal and genital areas
what do cervical injuries result in?
injuries above C4 may require _______ to breathe
what do C5 injuries result in ?
shoulder and bicep control. but no control at wrist or hand
what do C6 injuries result in ?
wrist control but no hand function
individual with _____ to ____ injuries can straighten their arms
injuries at the thoracic level result in _________, with the hands not affected
at _____ to ____ there is control of the hands , but poor trunk control
which type of injuries yield decreasing control of hip flexors and legs?
lumbar and sacral
lower injuries allow bad trunk control and sitting balance is bad (T/F)
how many cranial nerves are there?
what are the 4 descending (efferent) tracts to muscles?
- lateral corticospinal tract
- Rubrospinal tract
- reticulospinal tract
- vestibulospinal tract
lateral corticospinal tract
- begin in primary cortex
- descend through left and right thalamus
- responsible control limb movements
red nucleaus with pons control fine movements and coordination
- originate in reticularformation
- control automatic movement and muscle tone
control balance and orientation in space
____ dermatomes areas feed sensory afferent info back to the -_____
each pair of spinal nerves end in a network of skin receptors called ______
what is the process of how a stimulus is carried through the body? (ex touching hot substance)
- visual stimulus
- frontal lobe command movement
- spinal cord carry info to hand
- motor neuron carry info to hands and muscles
- sensory receptors from hand send message to sensory cortex
- sensory cortex recieve message
- basal ganglia judge grasp force and cerebellum correct errors
- spinal cord sends sensory info to brain
what is nerve conduction velocity used to test?
- nerve function
- speed impulses through a nerve
what is the f-wave measured?
speed of tranmision between two points
what is f wave latency in upper and lower extremeties?
- upper- 25-32 ms
- lower- 45-56 ms
in adults 15 and above does f latency differ?