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2011-11-16 20:51:44

Chapter 12: The Central Nervous System
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  1. Ventricles
    are hollow, fluid (CSF)-filled cavities lined by ependymal cells
  2. Lateral Ventricles
    • 2 ventricles that lie within the cerebral Hemisphere
    • Separated from one another by the Septum Pellucidum
  3. Thrid Ventricle
    • In the Diencephalon
    • connected to the Lateral Ventricles by the Interventricular Foraman
  4. Fourth Ventricle
    Is continuous with the thrid via the cerebral aqueduct in the hind brain
  5. Fissures
    • Deep grooves ( deeper than sulci)
    • Separates large regoins of the brain
  6. Longitudinal Fissure
    Divides the Right and left cerebrum
  7. Transverse Cerebral Fissure
    Separates the Cerebrum from the Cerebellum
  8. Gyri
    • Gyrus- the ridges of brian
    • Separated by Sulci
  9. Precentral Gyrus
    Lies on frontal lobe side of Central Sulcus
  10. Postcentral Gyrus
    Lies on parietal lobe side of Central Sulcus
  11. Sulci
    Sulcus- Sallow grooves (indent of wrinkles of the brain
  12. Central Sulcus
    Separates the Frontal Lobe from the Parietal Lobe
  13. Lateral Sulcus
    Separates the Temporal Lobe from the Parietal and Frontal Lobes on lateral side
  14. Parieto-Occipital Sulcus
    Separates the parietal lobe from the Occipital lobe on the Medial Side
  15. Insula
    Lies deep within the lateral sulcus and makes up the floor of the sulcus
  16. What are the layers of the Cerebrum?
    • Superficial cortex - grey matter
    • Deeper, internal portion - white matter
    • Basal Nuclei-patches of grey matter that lies in the white matter
  17. Cerebral Hemispheres
    • The covering of the brain
    • Superior aspect of the brain
    • Can be refered to as Cerebrum
  18. Cerebral Cortex
    • The conscious mind that allows us to be aware of ourselves and our sensations
    • allows us to communicate, remember, understand and initates voluntary movements
  19. Generalizations about the Cerebral Cortex
    • Contains motor, sensory, and association areas - all interneuron Neurons
    • R side of brain is concerned with L side of body and Viseversa
    • Some specialization of the cortex occurs and not all regions of the right cortex correspond to the same area on the L cortex
    • No one part acts alone
    • Entire cortex maybe involved in one way r another in conscious behavior
  20. Motor Areas
    • Controls Voluntary movement and lies within the posterior part of the Frontal lobe
    • Primary motor and premotor cortex's, Broca area, Frontal eye field
  21. Primary Motor Cortex
    • In the precentral gyrus of each hemisphere
    • Controls precise or skilled voluntary movements
  22. Premotor Cortex
    • Within the Frontal Lobe anterior to the Percental Gyrus
    • Controls learned motor Skills of a repetitous nature
    • Maybe invoved in planning movements
  23. Brocas Area
    • Frontal cortexinferior to the premotor area present mostly in left Hemisphere
    • responsible for motor speed and speech preparation and many volunatary motor activities
  24. Frontal eye field
    • Laretal to the premotor cortex, Superior to the Broca's area
    • Controls voluntary movement of the eyes Motor area
  25. Sensory Area's
    • areas concerned with conscious awareness of sensation occurs in the parietal, insulsr, temporal & occipital lobes
    • Primary Somatosensory,Somatosensory cortex's, Visual,Auditory,Olfactory,Gustatory,Viseral,Vestibular
  26. Primary Somaotsensory Cortex
    • Within the postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe behind the primary motor cortex
    • Receives sensory info from the skin and proprioceptors in the skeetal muscle, joints and tendons
  27. Somaotsensory Assciation Cortex
    • Lies posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex
    • Integrates sensory inputs and relays to the primary Somatosensory Cortex
  28. Visual Areas
    • Posterior tip of the occipital Lobe
    • receives Visual info
    • Stores visual memory in the surrounding visual association area
  29. Auditory Area
    • superior margin of the temporal lobe next to the lateral sulcus
    • Receives auditory info stores auditory memory in the posterior auditory association area
  30. Olfactory Area
    • Lies on the medial aspect of the temporal lobe
    • receives olfactory info maybe associated also with the limbic system
  31. Visceral Sensory Area
    • Posterior to the Gustatory Cortex in the insula
    • Involved in the conscious perception of Visceral Sensation
  32. Gustatory Cortex
    • Located in the insula
    • Involved in the perception of taste
  33. Vestibular (equilibrium) Cortex
    • Located in the posteerior part of the insula next to the partietal cortex
    • Responsible for conscious awareness of balance
  34. Multimodal Association Area's
    Association areas that involve a range of the cortex where signals are received from many inputs and outputs are sent to many areas
  35. Anterior Association Areas
    • The prefrontal cortex lies in frontal lobe
    • Involved with intellect, complex learning abilities (cognition) recall and personality
    • Involved in the production of abstract ideas, judgement, reasoning persistence and planning
  36. Posterior Association Area
    • Parts of the temporal, partietal, and occipital lobes
    • Involved in pattern, facial recognition, knowing where we are in space.
    • Intergration sensory info as a whole
    • -Wernickes area
  37. Limbic Association Area
    • The cingulated gyrus, the parahippocampal gyrus and the hippocampus
    • Provides emotional impact and establishes emotional memories surrounding events
  38. Wernicke's Area
    Is involved in understanding written and spoken language
  39. Cerebral White Matter
    • Responsible for communication
    • Between cerebral areas and between the cerebral cortex and lower CNS centers
    • Consists of Myelinated fibers that are classified according to direction info travels
  40. Commissures
    • Connects corresponding gray areas of the two hemispheres and allows them to function as a whole
    • Includes the Corpus Callisum and the anterior and posterior commissures
  41. Association
    Connects different parts of the same hemisphere of the same hemisphere and adjacent gyri
  42. Projection
    Receives and sends input to the lower areas and ties the cortex with the rest of the nervous system and to the bodies receptors and effectors
  43. Basal Nuclei
  44. Diencephalon
    the epithalamus, thalamus, Hypothalamus, and the Retina of the eye
  45. Thalamus
    • 2 knobs located Medial and central in the brain conneccted at the Midline by the intermediate mass
    • Relay station for info coming into the cerebral cortex info in then sorted and edited (filter)
  46. What are the key roles of the Thalamus?
    Mediating sensation, Motor actities, Cortical arousal, Learning anf memory
  47. Hypothalamus
    • Located inferior to the thalamus and is connected to the pituitary gland by the infundibulum
    • -Contians functionally important nuclei and is responsible for Visceral control
  48. Epithalamus
    • Forms the roof of the 3rd Ventricle
    • The Pineal Gland extends from the posterir border and secrets Melatonin and aids in regulating the Sleep-wake cycle
  49. Brain Stem
    • Midbrain,Pons,and Medulla
    • Organized simillar to the spinal cord with deep gray matter surrounded by white matter fiber tracts
    • Contains nuclei off gray matter embeded in white matter unlike spinal cord
    • Survival Center
  50. MidBrain
    Contains two bulging cerebral peduncles on the ventral (anterior) aspects of the Midbrain
  51. Pons
    • Forms the bulging part of the brain stem
    • Deep fibers run from the higher brain and spinal cord with the superficial ventral fibers connect the Pons with the Cerebellum
    • Aids the medulla in normal respiration
  52. Medulla Oblongata
  53. Cerebellum
    • Hind portion or hind brain-locateddorsal to Pons and inferior to the Occipital lobes of the cerebrum
    • -Provides precise timing and appropriate patterns of skeletal muscle contraction for smooth coordinated movements and agility subconsciously
  54. Types of Sleep
    • Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM)-
    • 1st 90 minutes of the sleep cycle
    • Depressed Functioning
    • Rapid Eye Movement (REM)-
    • Occurs after 90mins of sleep cycle
    • Dream stage, Increased functioning in a stage of temporary Paralysis
  55. Alpha Waves
    A calm, relaxed, awake brain
  56. Beta Waves
    Mentally alert or concentrated brain
  57. Delta Waves
    Sleep and Anestatized brains or an indication of brain damage in a waken adult
  58. Theta Waves
    Common in children and in some adults while concertrating
  59. Non- Declarative
    Skills,Motor Memory, emotional memory acquired through experience and repetition
  60. Declarative
    fact memory including faces, words, dates, and names