Diphtheria

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Author:
ehamm
ID:
116797
Filename:
Diphtheria
Updated:
2011-11-14 19:11:29
Tags:
Diphtheria
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Description:
Diphtheria
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  1. Organism
    • Gram positive rods
    • Clubbed ends
    • C. Dephtheriae -> produce dephtheria toxin via bacteriophage gene. Controlled by repressor gene DtxR
  2. Epidemiology
    • Droplet spread, direct contact, fomites
    • Convalescent carrier stage
    • Immunization reduces prevalence dramatically
  3. Pathogenesis
    • Not invasive
    • Disease caused by exotoxin
    • Inhibits protein synthesis in almost all eukaryote cells; toxicity varies among mammals; toxic via ADP-R: A subunit targets EF-2; shuts down protein synthesis
    • C. Diphtheria unaffected by toxin
    • Immunity: toxin is antigenic, toxoid vaccine conferes immunnity
  4. Clinical aspects
    • Incubation: 2-4 days
    • Pharyngitis, tonsillitis; malaise, sore throat, fever, psuedomembrane
    • Bullneck appearance
    • Mechanical obstruction of airways can lead to suffocation
    • Myocarditis serious systemic complication
    • Nervous system involvement
  5. Diagnosis
    • Clinical
    • Isolating organism from infection site
    • Special medium
  6. Treatment
    • Antitoxin
    • Erythromycin
    • Prevention: four doses of vaccine, need boosters every 10 years

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