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2011-11-19 21:27:26
bio diversity lab

Lab Exam 2
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  1. Coccus
    Bacterial morphology: shaped like spheres; can be single cells, pairs (diplococcus), chains (streptococci), or clusters of four (tetrads) or three dimensional cubes (sarcinae)
  2. Bacillus
    Bacterial morphology: rod- shaped like cylinders
  3. Spirillum
    Bacterial morphology: shaped like spiraling (or bent) cylinders
  4. Gram stain
    • A technique that is used to differentiate between the gram positive and gram negative bacteria
    • Applying three stains (crystal violet, iodine, and safranin) with alcohol
  5. Gram-positive bacteria
    Appear purple
  6. Gram-negative bacteria
    Appear pink or red
  7. Colony configuration
    The overall appearance of the colonies. Ex. round, irregular, filamentous, rhizoid
  8. Colony margin
    The edge of the colony. Ex. smooth, wavy (undulate), lobate, ciliate, branching
  9. Colony elevation
    The vertical element of the colony's appearance. Ex. flat, raised, convex, umbonate, hilly, crateriform
  10. Colony opacity
    The translucence of the colony. Ex. opaque, translucent, transparent
  11. Bacterial field marks
    Accesible signs by sight (naked eye), smell, or hear that alert us of the presence of bacteria
  12. Hyperthermophiles
    Bacteria/archaea that can grow in high temperatures (above 80oC)
  13. Halophiles
    Bacteria/archaea that thrive in environments with very high concentrations of salt
  14. Bacteriorhodopsin
    A distinctive pink-red carotenoid pigment that helps carry out light-mediated ATP synthesis
  15. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria
    Can help plants cope with low nitrogen levels in the soil in exchange for sugars and protection
  16. Bacteria vs. Archaea
    • Bacteria's cell walls contain peptidoglycan
    • Archaea's cell walls contain pseudopeptidolglycan
  17. Euryarcheota
    • Halophiles, methanogens, thermophilic and acidophilic species
    • Can be all shapes, some lack cell wall, some have glycoprotein cell wall
    • Rod shaped can be chains and spherical can be in ball like aggregations
  18. Methanogens
    • All produce CH4 as a by-product
    • Use a variety of organic compounds as electron acceptors
  19. Crenarcheota
    • Inhabit boiling/freezing water, but not all are extremophiles
    • NH4-oxidizing abundant in soils for nitrification
    • Shapes can be all but spiral
    • Once species has cell wall of glycoprotein
    • No photosynthesis, rare fermentation
  20. Proteobacteria
    • Largest and most metabolically diverse
    • All are gram-negative
    • Wide range of cell shapes (straight and curved bacilli, cocci, and spirilla
    • Some form fruiting bodies
  21. Actinobacteria
    • Gram-positive bacteria
    • Aerobic, inhabit soil and plant materials
    • Rod-shaped, branching filamentous
  22. Cyanobacteria
    • Oxygenic phototrophs, some can fix nitrogen
    • 5 morphological groups
  23. Spirochetes
    • Tightly coiled corkscrew shape
    • Motile, have unusual flagella
    • Many are parasites, some are symbionts in guts of termites and ruminants
    • Fermentation for ATP
  24. Firmicutes
    • Gram-positive bacteria
    • Bacilli or cocci
    • Homofermentative producing lactic acid and heterofermentative producing other products and lactate
  25. Chlamydiales
    • Parasitic
    • Cocci, among smallest bacteria
    • Obligate intracellular parasites
  26. Homofermentative
    Producing lactic acid as a sole fermentation product
  27. Heterofermentative
    Produce other products such as ethanol, CO2, and lactate
  28. Obligate intracellular parasites
    They obtain ATP in addition to biosynthetic intermediates from their hosts
  29. Green sulfur bacteria
    • Anoxygenic photoheterotrophs
    • Only short to long bacilli
    • Utilize H2S as electron donor
  30. Green nonsulfur bacteria
    • Anoxygenic phototroph
    • Filamentous that form microbial mats
    • One lacks peptidoglycan in cell wall
    • Photoautotrophy, photoheterotrophs, chemoorganoheterotrophs
    • Autotrophy based on hydroxypropionate pathway
  31. Phagocytosis
    • Using endocytosis to envelop food particles with a portion of their cell membranes
    • Used by chemoorganotrophic protists
  32. Sessile
    Attached to a substrate; can't move
  33. How protists move
    • 1) Pseudopodia-extensions of cytoplasm that reach out from the cell
    • 2) Flagella- long, whip-like structures
    • 3) Cilia- short, hair-like structures
  34. Cellular arrangements of Protists
    • Unicellular- a single cell
    • Filamentous- long strands of single cells that are all connected
    • Aggregates- groups of cells that are joined together with haphazard arrangements
    • Colonial- groups of cells that are joined together into predictable arrangements
    • Multicellular- composed of multiple cell types that have physiological differentiation
  35. Protists supergroup Alveolata
    • Ciliophora (ciliates)
    • Dinozoa (dinoflagellates)
  36. Protists supergroup Stramenopiles
    • Bacillariophyta (diatoms)
    • Phaeophyceae (brown algae)
  37. Protists supergroup Rhizaria
    • Foraminifera (forams)
    • Radiolaria (radiolarians)
  38. Protist supergroup Archaeplastida
    • Rhodophyceae (red algae)
    • Chloroplastida -Chlorophyta (green algae)
  39. Protist supergroup Excavata
    • Fornicata -Diplomonadida
    • Euglenozoa
    • -Euglenida
    • -Kinetoplastea
  40. Protists supergroup Amoebozoa
    • Eumycetozoa (slime molds)
    • Tubulinea
  41. Protist supergroup Opisthokonta
    Choanomonada (choanoflagellates)
  42. Ciliophora (ciliates) cilia
    Used to move
  43. Ciliophora (ciliates) oral groove
    A fold in the membrane of the cell that is used to channel food
  44. Ciliophora (ciliates) vacuole
    • Food vacuoles- should be many in the cell, often partially clear
    • Contractile vacuoles- typically 2, one each end; should be large and clear
  45. Ciliophora (ciliates) macronucleus
    Used for creation of mRNA, large opaque structure
  46. Ciliophora (ciliates) micronucleus
    Used for reproduction, small opaque structure
  47. Dinozoa (dinoflagellates) cellulose plates
    Modified alveoli that form a rigid skeletal structure
  48. Dinozoa (dinoflagellates) Equatorial groove (girdle)
    Divides the plates, along with other grooves
  49. Bacillariophyta (diatoms) silica
    Forms external skeleton
  50. Diatomaceous earth
    Formed by groupings of shells from dead diatoms
  51. Phaeophyceae (brown algae) fucoxanthin
    A brown accessory pigment found in their chloroplasts
  52. Phaeophyceae (brown algae) holdfast
    Root-like structure that fastens the alga to substrates
  53. Phaeophyceae (brown algae) stipe
    Stalk-like structure of brown algae
  54. Phaeophyceae (brown algae) blade
    Leaf-like structures
  55. Foraminifera (Forams) test
    A shell-like hardened structure outside the cell, made of calcium carbonate
  56. Radiolaria (Radiolarians) axopodia
    Very thin pseudopods supported by microtubules that emerge from pores in their skeletons
  57. Radiolaria (Radiolarians) silica
    • Make up skeletons
    • Is deposited within the outer layer of their cells
  58. Glaucophyta cyanelle
    An organelle that contains the gene for chlorophyll a on a plasmid and has a layer of peptidoglycan between the double membrane surrounding the organelle
  59. Rhodophyceae (red algae) phycocyanin and phycoerythrin
    The pigments that give them their red color
  60. Rhodophyceae (red algae) cell walls
    Certain species deposit calcium or magnesium carbonate in their cell walls
  61. Chlorophyta (green algae)
    • Unicellular- Chlamydomonas
    • Filamentous- Spirogyra
    • Colonial- Eudorina, Pleodorina
    • Multicellular- Volvox
  62. Trypanosoma lewisi
    Rat blood parasite, trasmitted by fleas (by consumption of fleas or flea feces)
  63. Trypanosoma lewisi undulating membrane
    Clear membrane visible on the side of the cell
  64. Trypanosoma lewisi nucleus
    The largest stained structure inside the cell
  65. Trypanosoma lewisi Kinetoplast
    Mass of DNA in the single large mitochondria; visible as a small stained structure in the cell
  66. Trypanosoma cruzi
    Potentially fatal human parasite that lives in blood
  67. Trypanosoma cruzi transmitted by
    • Hemipterans (true bugs)
    • Also by blood transfusion and from mother to fetus
  68. Amoeba proteus ectoplasm
    Outer region of the cell's cytoplasm, directly adjacent to the membrane; often clear
  69. Amoeba proteus endoplasm
    Contains nucleus, contractile vacuoles, food vacuoles
  70. Amoeba proteus nucleus
    Typically opaque; there should only be one in each cell
  71. Amoeba proteus food vacuoles
    Often dark, typically many in each cell
  72. Amoeba proteus pseudopodia
    Extensions of the cell used for locomotion
  73. Acellular Eumycetozoa (Slime molds)
    Vegetative stage is a plasmodium (variably sized mass of protoplasm)
  74. Cellular Eumycetozoa (Slime molds)
    Vegetative cells aggregate as a mass of cells and migrate together
  75. Choanomonada
    Single celled or colonial filter feeding organotrophs that are morphologically very similar to the choanocytes of sponges
  76. All animals are ___yotic, ____cellular, ____trophic _____trophs.
    eukaryotic, multicellular, chemoorganotrophic heterotrophs
  77. Germ layers
    The basic types that animal cells diverge into as the embyos develop, and further differentiate into specific tissues and organs
  78. Triploblasts
    Containing three germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm
  79. Diploblasts
    Contain two germ layers
  80. Tissues
    A group of cells that are of similar type that function together as a single unit
  81. Organs
    Composed of multiple tissue types linked together into a single physiological unit that performs a defined function
  82. Sexual reproduction
    Offspring are produced by the combination of tow gametes (sperm and eggs) from genetically different parents combining and fusing their nuclei
  83. Biparental sexual reproduction
    Separate sexes each produce either male or female gamete
  84. Hermaphroditic
    An individual can produce both male and female gametes
  85. Sequential hermaphrodites
    Life is started producing one type of gamete and then can switch to producing the other type (but can't produce both at once)
  86. Simultaneous hermaphrodites
    Producing both male and female gametes at the same time
  87. Asexual reproduction
    Producing offspring without the combination of two parents' gametes' genetic material
  88. Gemmulation
    • Producing a small clump of cells, a gemmule, that has a protective coating
    • Asexual reproduction
  89. Budding
    • An unequal division of an organism through mitotic divisions, wherein a small outgrowth eventually matures into an adult
    • Asexual reproduction
  90. Fragmentation
    • A large animal is divided or is broken into smaller pieces, each of which replaces the lost portions of itself
    • Asexual reproduction
  91. Parthenogenesis
    The animals produce fertile offspring via the development of unfertilized eggs; animals tha reproduce solely via parthenogenesis are considered
  92. Hydrostatic skeleton
    Provides support through the action of muscles compressing the fluid in their body cavities
  93. Exoskeletons
    Hardened structures outside of the body that can come in a number of types: tests, shells, or hardened integuments
  94. Endoskeletons
    Can be anything from the bones of many vertebrates to the mineral spicules of sponges
  95. Juvenile/larval stages
    • The animal focuses on development and growth to the exclusion of reproduction
    • All animals have them
  96. Radial symmetry
    The animal can be divided into equal halves by multiple planes
  97. Bilateral symmetry
    The animal can be divided into equal halves by only one plane
  98. Filter feeders
    Feeding on particulate matter suspended in a fluid; sometimes termed suspension feeding
  99. Deposit feeders
    Consuming particulate matter from the soil or other substrates
  100. Fluid feeders
    Getting nutrition from the body fluids of other organisms
  101. Food-mass feeders
    Consuming large portions of other organisms
  102. Metazoa
    All animals
  103. Deuterostomes
    Animals that exhibit a specific style of embryonic development that contrasts with protostomes. Their blastopore devolops into an anus, their embryonic cells are generally totipotent, and they show enterocoelous development of their coelom (body cavity)
  104. Protostomes
    Animals that exhibit a specific style of embryonic development that contrasts with deuterostomes. Their blastopore develops into a mouth, their embryonic cells are generally not totipotent, and they show schizocoelous development of ther coelom (body cavity)
  105. Lophotrochozoa
    • Protostomes
    • Animals that have a pophophore (a unique feeding structure) or a trochophore larval stage (this group was first identified through rRNA studies)
  106. Ecdysozoa
    • Protostomes
    • Animals that possess a molting cuticle (this group was first identified through rRNA studies)
  107. Atrium
    Empty area of water in a sponge
  108. Epitheliod cells
    Line the outer wall of the sponge's body (exopinacoderm)
  109. Porocytes
    Cells that form a pore (ostium) in the sponge's body wall through which water flows
  110. Choanocytes
    Flagellated cells that line the inner wall of the sponges body. The flagella beat to make water flow over a band (collar) of microvilli that capture and absorb nutrients
  111. Mesohyl
    • A gel-like matrix between the epithelial cells and choanocytes that contains cells performing various functions.
    • The only enclosed space in a sponge's body
  112. Spicules
    • Hardened structures that the sponges use for support
    • Created by the cells in the mesohyl