botany ch9

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  1. living organisms are classified in
  2. 3 living organism domains
    archaea, eukarya, bacteria
  3. archaea
    • Possess genes and several metabolic pathways that are more closely related to those of eukaryotes
  4. bacteria
    • unicellular, prokaryotes
    • found in every environment around the world
  5. eukarya
    eukaryotes, often multicellular
  6. 7 kingdoms in Eukarya
    animalia, fungi, plantae, amoebozoa, chromalveolata, rhizaria, excavata
  7. kingdom plantae contain
    all the land plants
  8. 5 major lineage of plantea
    byrophites, pteridophites, fern allies, gymnosperms, angiosperms
  9. byrophites
    mosses, liverworts
  10. pteridophites
  11. fern allies
    fern like plants
  12. gymnosperms
  13. angiosperms
    flowering plants
  14. antheridium
    the container that holds the sperm within the gametophyte tissue
  15. archegonium
    the container that holds the egg within the gametophyte tissue
  16. spore capsule
    the diploid life stage of the byrophytes, cells within the capsule undergo meiosis to become haploid cells
  17. protenoma
    the haploid spores germinate into an alyal like filamentous body that will give rise to a new gametophyte
  18. homosporous
    all spores produced by the sporophyte are of the same size
  19. heterosporous
    different sized spores produced. often larger spores produced female gametophytes, and smaller spores produce male gametophytes
  20. microphyll
    a leaf with a single unbranched vein, may have only primitive conductive tissue
  21. megaphyll
    a leaf with true xylem and phloem and complex venation
  22. frond
    fern leaf
  23. circinate venation
    fiddle head growth habit
  24. sorus
    a cluster of sporangia on the abaxial surface of the frond
  25. indusium
    an umbrella like structure that covers the sorus
  26. sporangia
    individual capsules containing many spores, on a stalk
  27. annulus
    ring of thickened cells on he sporangium, snap open to release spores
  28. gymnosperms
    • xylem, no vessel elements.
    • softwood, many evergreen
    • extremely slow life cycles
  29. conipherophyta
    contain largest, oldest trees. often evergreen
  30. gametophyte
    haploid generation of plant, gametes are produced directly from the tissue via mitosis
  31. sporophyte
    the diploid generation of plant, haploid spores are produced via meiosis
  32. sporangium
    the structure that houses the spores
  33. byrophytes
    liverworts, hornworts, mosses. small plants, haploid stage is dominant life stage
  34. prothallus
    heart shaped gametophyte in the fern
  35. rhizoids
    hair like water absorbing structures on the prothallus
  36. gymonsperms
    • sporophyte generation is dominant
    • seed plants
    • naked seeds
  37. seed plants
    diploid embryo packaged for dispersal
  38. 4 main lineage of gymnosperms
    • conferopyta
    • cyadophyta
    • ginkgophyta
    • gnetophyta
  39. conferopyta
    evergreen conifers
  40. cyadophyta
    cyads- tropical extremely old lineage
  41. ginkgophyta
    ginkgo- was nearly extinct. only a single species exist
  42. gnetophyta
    tropical vines, fleshy cones
  43. mega
  44. megasporophyll
    leaf like structure bearing female spores
  45. megasporangium
    structure that contains female megaspore, immediately goes through meiosis to make haploid femal gametophyte
  46. ovule
    megasporangium + egg ( in the archegonia)+ integument
  47. nucellus
    nutritive tissue surrounding the archegonia
  48. megagametophyte
    female reproductive structure, consists of archegonia, produces egg
  49. integument
    membranous enclosure or seed coat surrounding the female megagametophyte
  50. micro
  51. microsporophyll
    leaf like structure that bears microsporangia (pollen sacs)
  52. microsporangium
    structure that contains haploid pollen grains
  53. microspores
    mature haploid pollen grains
  54. microgametophyte
    pollen grains germinate to produce sperm that fertilizes the egg
  55. cyadophyta
    • small group of shrubs and trees
    • pinnately compound leaves
    • cones
    • dioecious
  56. gingkgophyta
    gingko biloba, only species left
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botany ch9
2011-11-15 01:58:17
botany ch9

botany ch9
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