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- Sensing position
- Knowing where your body is and how it feels
Gate Control Theory
- Idea that the small nerve fibers in the spinal cord open a gate that permits pain signals to travel up to your brain
- Or large nerve fibers close the gate to present their passage. This stops the pain from effecting us.
- Vestibular sense--tells your brain whether youre upright
- Semicircular canal in the ear
Memory & Pain
People remember an unpleasant experience as more harsh when they expect to have the same experience again.
- Difference in depth between the eyes
- Two different images from the eyes
- Some depth perception occurs through 1 eye
- Others require 2 eyes
- we integrate bits and pieces into a whole.
- make whole even when there are gaps in sensory input
types of perceptual organization
- figure-ground perception--tendency to see geometric forms against.
- common fate--moving together=belong together
a binocular cue for depth based on the difference in the image cast by an oject on the retinas of the eyes as the object moves closer or farther away.
binocular depth cues
involve both eyes and help percieve depth
monocular depth cues
involves only one eye and helps percieve depth
- placing one objct in fom of another. the more distant object gets put in the back
- percieving depth based on the fact that a near object obscures a more distant object.
- close objects appear to have a rougher surface
- depth based on the inward movement of the eyes as they attempt to focus on an object that is drawing nearer.
enable us to recognize objects even when their apparent size and shape might differ
tendency to percieve an object as being the same size even as the size of its retinal image changes according to he object's distance
perceiving an object as being the same color although the lighting of it may vary
- pitch of a sound is sensed according to the place along the basilar membrane that vibrates in repsonse to it.
- receptor neurons seem to be lined up along the basilar membrane like piano keys--the higher the pitch the higher on the piano (the ear) it goes
How do you taste?
- sweet, sour, bitter, salty, unami
- sensed through taste cells which are located in taste buds on the tongue
- smell plays huge role in taste
how do you smell?
- smell is chemical
- odors travel land on the olfactory membrane in each nostril and then sent to the brain via the olfactory nerve
How does the ear work?
- outer ear funnels soud waves to the eardrum which vibrates in sympathy was the waves.
- eardrum transmits waves through the bones of the middle ear to the cochlea of the inner ear
- basilar membrance transmits stimuli to the organ of corti
- organ of corti has hairs that are stimulated by the waves
- sends the sensory info to the auditory nerve
- goes to the brain
weakest amound of stimulus a person can distinguish from no stimulus
minimum difference in magnitude of 2 stimulus required to tell 2 apart from eachother
perceptions that rely on experience
sensory info gets sent to the brain to be interpretted
size adjust s automatically to amount of light present
muscular membrane whose dialation regulates the amount of light coming into the eye
area of the inner surface of the eye that contains rods and cones
area near the center of the retina that is dense in cones and where vision is consequently mots acute
photoreptor that transmits senstations of black and white
photoreceptor that transmits sensations of color
area of the retina where axons form ganglion cells that meet to form the optic nerve
conducts neural impulses from rods and cones to ganglion cells
- located in organ of corti.
- dance in response to the vibrations of the basilar membrane
- sensory info then transmitted to the brain via auditory nerve
- higher frequency=higher pitch
- higher the wave the louder the sound
- notes that for us to percieve lower pitches we need the stimulation of neural impulses that match the frequency of the sound waves.
- hair cells on the basilar membrane fire at the same frequencies as the sound waves.