Psych Perception

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Psych Perception
2011-11-14 21:23:28

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  1. Kinesthetics
    • Sensing position
    • Knowing where your body is and how it feels
  2. Gate Control Theory
    • Idea that the small nerve fibers in the spinal cord open a gate that permits pain signals to travel up to your brain
    • Or large nerve fibers close the gate to present their passage. This stops the pain from effecting us.
  3. Semi-Circular Canals
    • Vestibular sense--tells your brain whether youre upright
    • Semicircular canal in the ear
  4. Memory & Pain
    People remember an unpleasant experience as more harsh when they expect to have the same experience again.
  5. Retinal Disparity
    • Difference in depth between the eyes
    • Two different images from the eyes
    • Some depth perception occurs through 1 eye
    • Others require 2 eyes
  6. Gestalt Principles
    • we integrate bits and pieces into a whole.
    • make whole even when there are gaps in sensory input
  7. types of perceptual organization
    • figure-ground perception--tendency to see geometric forms against.
    • proximity
    • continuity
    • common fate--moving together=belong together
    • similarity
  8. retinal disparity
    a binocular cue for depth based on the difference in the image cast by an oject on the retinas of the eyes as the object moves closer or farther away.
  9. binocular depth cues
    involve both eyes and help percieve depth
  10. monocular depth cues
    involves only one eye and helps percieve depth
  11. interposition
    • placing one objct in fom of another. the more distant object gets put in the back
    • mono
  12. shadowing
    • percieving depth based on the fact that a near object obscures a more distant object.
    • mono
  13. texture gradient
    • close objects appear to have a rougher surface
    • mono
  14. convergence
    • depth based on the inward movement of the eyes as they attempt to focus on an object that is drawing nearer.
    • bi
  15. perceptual constancy
    enable us to recognize objects even when their apparent size and shape might differ
  16. size constancy
    tendency to percieve an object as being the same size even as the size of its retinal image changes according to he object's distance
  17. color constancy
    perceiving an object as being the same color although the lighting of it may vary
  18. place theory
    • pitch of a sound is sensed according to the place along the basilar membrane that vibrates in repsonse to it.
    • receptor neurons seem to be lined up along the basilar membrane like piano keys--the higher the pitch the higher on the piano (the ear) it goes
  19. How do you taste?
    • sweet, sour, bitter, salty, unami
    • sensed through taste cells which are located in taste buds on the tongue
    • smell plays huge role in taste
  20. how do you smell?
    • smell is chemical
    • odors travel land on the olfactory membrane in each nostril and then sent to the brain via the olfactory nerve
  21. How does the ear work?
    • outer ear funnels soud waves to the eardrum which vibrates in sympathy was the waves.
    • eardrum transmits waves through the bones of the middle ear to the cochlea of the inner ear
    • basilar membrance transmits stimuli to the organ of corti
    • organ of corti has hairs that are stimulated by the waves
    • sends the sensory info to the auditory nerve
    • goes to the brain
  22. skin senses
    • temperature
    • pressure
    • pain
  23. absolute threshold
    weakest amound of stimulus a person can distinguish from no stimulus
  24. difference threshold
    minimum difference in magnitude of 2 stimulus required to tell 2 apart from eachother
  25. top-down
    perceptions that rely on experience
  26. bottom-up
    sensory info gets sent to the brain to be interpretted
  27. pupil
    size adjust s automatically to amount of light present
  28. iris
    muscular membrane whose dialation regulates the amount of light coming into the eye
  29. retina
    area of the inner surface of the eye that contains rods and cones
  30. fovea
    area near the center of the retina that is dense in cones and where vision is consequently mots acute
  31. rods
    photoreptor that transmits senstations of black and white
  32. cone
    photoreceptor that transmits sensations of color
  33. blind spot
    area of the retina where axons form ganglion cells that meet to form the optic nerve
  34. bipolar nerve
    conducts neural impulses from rods and cones to ganglion cells
  35. Hair cells
    • located in organ of corti.
    • dance in response to the vibrations of the basilar membrane
    • sensory info then transmitted to the brain via auditory nerve
  36. pitch
    • hertz
    • higher frequency=higher pitch
  37. loudness
    • decibel
    • higher the wave the louder the sound
  38. frequency theory
    • notes that for us to percieve lower pitches we need the stimulation of neural impulses that match the frequency of the sound waves.
    • hair cells on the basilar membrane fire at the same frequencies as the sound waves.