HUN Exam3 Major Minerals

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bkheath
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116910
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HUN Exam3 Major Minerals
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2011-11-15 00:00:12
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HUN Exam3 Major Minerals
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HUN Exam3 Major Minerals
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  1. Major minerals include: Ca, Mg, Na, K, __, __, __
    P, S, Cl
  2. Factors which effect bioavailability of minerals include phytates, oxalates, ____ (found in teas), ___, ____ (found in wines), a person's needs & their ____ ____, and other minerals which compete for absorption
    polyphenols, tannins, intestinal acidity
  3. Minerals regulations functions include:
    ___ balance, ___ balance
    ___ system function
    muscle contraction
    ___ processes (____)
    • Water, pH
    • nervous
    • metabolic; enzyme cofactors
  4. 2 electrolytes concentrated outside cell, 2 inside (and their charges)
    • Outside: Na+, Cl-
    • Inside: K+, P-
  5. Functions of sodium/potassium pump (3)
    • Fluid balance
    • Muscle contraction
    • Conduction/transmission of nerve impulses
  6. Functions of chloride include fluid balance and (3)
    • Nerve impulse conduction
    • HCl acid production
    • Immune response
  7. Ppl w/salt-sensitive hypertension are put on ___ diet
    DASH
  8. Sodium
    AI:
    UL:
    DV:
    • 1500 mg/dy
    • 2300 mg/dy
    • 2400 mg/dy
  9. Potassium
    AI:
    DV:
    • 4700 mg/dy
    • 3500 mg/dy
  10. Ca + P crystals =
    hydroxyapatite
  11. Constituent of bone & teeth matrix
    hydroxyapatite
  12. Functions of Ca include: bone & tooth structure (99%), nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, ___, and ___
    blood clotting, metabolic rxns
  13. 3 hormones involved in maintainance of blood calcium levels
    Parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitriol (vit D), calcitonin
  14. Stimulated when blood Ca is low and causes kidney retention of Ca, increases vit D activation, increases osteoclast activity (release Ca into blood by brkg down bone)
    Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  15. Cells that break down bone to release Ca into blood
    osteoclasts
  16. Hormone which increases Ca absorption
    Calcitriol (vit D)
  17. When blood Ca is high, ___ is stimulated from thyroid, which inhibits osteoclasts
    calcitonin
  18. When blood Ca is high ___ and ___ release decreases
    PTH, calcitriol
  19. Factors which increase Ca absorption include: vit D, lactose, optimal Ca:P ratio, ___, ____
    • growth hormones
    • meal, stomach acid
  20. Factors which decreases Ca absorption include: aging, lack of vit D, high ___ intake combined w/low Ca intake, high __ intake (mineral), lack of ____, and lots of _(3)___ intake
    • protein
    • P
    • stomach acid
    • fiber, phytate, oxalate
  21. Deficiency of Ca causes osteoporosis, ineffective ___, ____ which are muscle spasms
    • blood clotting
    • hypocalcemic tetany
  22. Excess Ca intake increases risk of ___ type kidney stones & ___
    • oxalate
    • interference w/absorption of other minerals
  23. Phsophorus important b/c part of essential compounds (ATP, phospholipids, DNA, RNA), Bone structure (hydroxyapatite), and for ____
    pH control
  24. Sources of P
    Dairy, grains, meat, processed foods
  25. Magnesium is important for bone health, activates ___, is ____, and plays a role in ___(3)___ function
    • ATP, enzyme cofactor
    • nerve, lung, cardiac
  26. Sources Mg
    Plants, "hard" water
  27. Effects of deficient Mg include hypertension, heart attack; ___2___; develops slowly & alcoholics at risk
    • irregular heartbeat
    • weakness, muscle pain
  28. Effects of excess Mg (3)
    • Weakness, nausea
    • Kidney failure
  29. Structure of bone is:
    __/__ mineral (hydroxyapatite = ___ + ___)
    __/__ water and protein (___)
    • 2/3; Ca + P
    • 1/3; collagen
  30. ___ build bone
    ___ break down bone
    • Osteoblasts
    • Osteoclasts
  31. Calcitonin vs PTH
    • Calcitonin inhibits Ca release from bone
    • PTH increases Ca release from bone
  32. Normal BP: <
    Prehypertension:
    Hypertension: >
    • 120/80
    • 120-139 / 80-89
    • 139/89
  33. Risk factors for hypertension include obesity, excess salt intake, lack exercise, excess alcohol, fam history, increasing age, and ___ have it more than ___ (races)
    African American, Caucasian
  34. Increasing potassium intake can help those with ___
    hypertension
  35. One strategy to reduce risk of osteoporosis is to maximize ___
    peak bone mass
  36. One serving of dairy supplies ~ ___ mg Ca
    300
  37. When choosing Ca supplements, look for ___ calcium levels
    Ca ___ can be taken any time of day
    Ca ___ should be taken w/meal (acid)
    • elemental
    • citrate
    • carbonate
  38. When choosing Ca supplements, look for ___ or ___ on labels, which have standards for quality, purity, & disintegration of tablets
    • USP (United States Pharmocopeia)
    • CL (Consumer Lab)

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